Human dietary

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  • T he science of human nutrition and its applications to health promotion continue to gain momentum. In the relatively short time since the release of the first edition of this Encyclopedia, a few landmark discoveries have had a dramatic multiplying effect over nutrition science: the mapping of the human genome, the links between molecular bioenergetics and lifespan, the influence of nutrients on viral mutation, to name a few.

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  • Numerous reports, including some from the National Research Council, have examined the relationship of diet to cancer. It is generally accepted that diet is a contributing factor to the onset or progression of some types of cancer and that a prudent selection of foods, including fruits and vegetables, and avoidance or decreased consumption of other foods might influence the risk to an individual of contracting cancer.

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  • Representing one of the most important lifestyle factors, diet can strongly influence the incidence and onset of cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent dietary intervention studies in several mammalian species, including humans, with flavonoid-rich foods, in particular Vitis vinifera (grape), Camellia sinensis (tea), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), and Vaccinium spp. (blueberry), have indicated an ability of these dietary components to improve memory and learning.

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  • Caffeine was conceived for a wide range of readers interested in the effects on human health, nutrition, and physiological function of the methylxanthine beverages and foods—tea, coffee, maté, cola beverages, and cocoa and chocolate products. These products supply one or more of the dietary methylxanthines—caffeine, theobromine and theophylline— and are an integral part of the diet of many people in many countries. The interest in the health effects of both the methylxanthines in isolation and in the products containing them has grown rapidly in recent years.

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  • As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccu- pation with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.

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  • The task for the Committee on Use of Dietary Reference Intakes in Nutrition Labeling, which I was privileged to chair, was to provide guidance to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), and Health Canada on how to use the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) to update the nutrient reference values used in nutrition labeling.

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  • Attempts to meet GHGE targets from the food chain must not be made in isolation because any dietary recommendations to reduce GHGEs must also meet dietary requirements for the health of the population. The most recent population-based energy and nutrient requirements were published in 1991 by the Department of Health (DoH 1991), with subsequent recommendations for specific food items such as fruit and vegetables, red and processed meat, and fish set by other organisations such as the Food Standards Agency and the World Cancer Research Fund (FSA 2007, WCRF 2007).

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  • Occasional injuries are part of the human experience, and healing is the body’s self-repair process. Healing begins with inflammation, which nature uses to clean up damaged tissues and protect against infection. So if inflammation is beneficial, why are so many modern diseases characterized by chronic and unhealthy inflammation? This revised edition of The Inflammation Syndrome answers a major part of this important question.

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  • As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccupation with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.

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  • In its most basic form, Lean Manufacturing is the systematic elimination of waste by focusing on production costs, product quality and delivery, and worker involvement. In the 1950s, Taiichi Ohno, developer of the Toyota “just-in-time” Production System, created the modern intellectual and cultural framework for Lean Manufacturing and waste elimination. Ohno defined waste as “any human activity which absorbs resources but creates no value.

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  • A basic premise of the Dietary Guidelines is that food guidance should recommend diets that will provide all  the nutrients needed for growth and health. To this end, food guidance should encourage individuals to achieve  the most recent nutrient intake recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, referred to collectively as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Tables of the DRIs are provided at http://www.iom.edu/Object.File/Master/21/372/0.pdf.

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  • Shelley's "Vindication of Natural Diet" was first written as part of the notes to "Queen Mab," which was privately issued in 1813. Later in the same year the "Vindication" was separately published as a pamphlet, and it is from this later publication that the present reprint is made. The original pamphlet is now exceedingly scarce, but it is said to have been reprinted in 1835, as an appendix to an American medical work, the "Manual on Health," by Dr. Turnbull, of New York.

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  • However, surveillance data shows that even in years of improved food production and relative stability, rates of acute and chronic malnutrition remain high in certain regions indicating other underlying causes play a significant role. Evidence shows that sub-optimal infant, young child and maternal feeding and care practices, low dietary diversity, poor hygiene, water and sanitation, high morbidity coupled with inadequate access to health care are key determinants of the problem.

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  • Human tissues such as liver, small intestine, spleen and kidney contain a cytosolic b-glucosidase (CBG) that hydrolyses variousb-D-glycosides, but whose physiological function is not known. Here, we describe the ®rst hetero-logous expression of human CBG, a system that facili-tated a detailed assessment of the enzyme speci®city towards dietary glycosides.

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  • Spirulina is a Microalgae that can be consumed by humans and animals. It is usually taken by humans as a nutritional supplement and is made primarily from two species of cyanobacteria: Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima. Arthrospira is cultivated worldwide; used as a dietary supplement as well as a whole food; and is available in tablet, flake and powder form. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium and poultry industries.

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  • The diet is the source of some 40 nutrients for human beings. These classically are divided into energy-yielding dietary components (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins), sources of essential and nonessential amino acids (proteins), essential unsaturated fatty acids (fats), minerals (including trace minerals), and vitamins (water-soluble and fat-soluble organic compounds) (see Shils et al . , 1999).

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  • Our planet’s atmosphere is thought to have changed gradually and over a very wide range of CO2 concentrations throughout history. From ancient atmospheric gases trapped in ice bubbles, we have strong evidence indicating that atmospheric CO2 values reached minimum concentrations of approximately 180 parts per million during the Last Glacial Maximum, which was only 15,000 years ago. At the other extreme, calculations suggest that some 500 million years ago the atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have been about 4000 to 5000 parts per million....

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  • Fatty acids are an important energy source, for they yield over twice as much energy as an equal mass of carbohydrate or protein. In humans, the primary dietary source of fatty acids is triacylglycerols. This lecture will describe the metabolism of fatty acids. The two main components of fatty acid metabolism are β oxidation and fatty acid synthesis. Upon completion of this lecture, you will understand that the fatty-acid breakdown reactions of β oxidation result in the formation of reduced cofactors and acetyl-CoA molecules, which can be further catabolized to release free energy.

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  • Problems of constipation, diarrhoea and irritable bowel syndrome are common. Infective diarrhoeal diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in infants and children.The management of these conditions is reviewed. • Constipation: mode of action and use of drugs • Diarrhoea (drug treatment importance of fluid and electrolyte replacement) • Inflammatory bowel disease • Irritable bowel syndrome STOOL BULKING AGENTS Dietary fibre comprises the cell walls and supporting structures of vegetables and fruits.

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  • How people deal with risks is one of the most interesting aspects of the human condition. Perceptions of risk are complex, and people deal with risks in different, often irrational, ways. Young, healthy people consider themselves immortal and immune from long-term, degenerative diseases. As a consequence they engage in risky dietary and smoking behaviors that enhance the chances of such diseases in later life.

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