This work deals with the application of conﬁdence measures within an interactivepredictive machine translation system in order to reduce human effort. If a small loss in translation quality can be tolerated for the sake of efﬁciency, user effort can be saved by interactively translating only those initial translations which the conﬁdence measure classiﬁes as incorrect.
The development of Dialog-Based ComputerAssisted Language Learning (DB-CALL) systems requires research on the simulation of language learners. This paper presents a new method for generation of grammar errors, an important part of the language learner simulator. Realistic errors are generated via Markov Logic, which provides an effective way to merge a statistical approach with expert knowledge about the grammar error characteristics of language learners. Results suggest that the distribution of simulated grammar errors generated by the proposed model is similar to that of real learners.
Miscommunication in speech recognition systems is unavoidable, but a detailed characterization of user corrections will enable speech systems to identify when a correction is taking place and to more accurately recognize the content of correction utterances. In this paper we investigate the adaptations of users when they encounter recognition errors in interactions with a voice-in/voice-out spoken language system.
The well-studied supervised Relation Extraction algorithms require training data that is accurate and has good coverage. To obtain such a gold standard, the common practice is to do independent double annotation followed by adjudication. This takes significantly more human effort than annotation done by a single annotator.
A collection of 3208 reported errors of Chinese words were analyzed. Among which, 7.2% involved rarely used character, and 98.4% were assigned common classifications of their causes by human subjects. In particular, 80% of the errors observed in writings of middle school students were related to the pronunciations and 30% were related to the compositions of words. Experimental results show that using intuitive Web-based statistics helped us capture only about 75% of these errors.
Everything is easy when you know how! The skill of scientificwriting is no exception. To be a good writer, all you need to dois learn and then follow a few simple rules. However, it can be
difficult to get a good grasp on the rules if your learningexperience is a protracted process of trial and error. There is nothing more discouraging than handing a document that
has taken hours to write to a coworker who takes a few
minutes to cover it in red pen and expects you to find this a
rewarding learning exercise....
ost of the problems of analyzing survey data have been reasonably well handled, except those revolving around the existence of interaction effects. Indeed, increased efficiency in handling multivariate analyses even with non-numerical variables, has been achieved largely by assuming additivity. An approach to survey data is proposed which imposes no restrictions on interaction effects, focuses on importance in reducing predictive error, operates sequentially, and is independent of the extent of linearity in the classifications or the order in which the explanatory factors are introduced...
This third edition of Analytical Chemistry for Technicians is the culmination and ﬁnal product of a series
of four projects funded by the National Science Foundation’s Advanced Technological Education Program
and two supporting grants from the DuPont Company. The grant funds have enabled me to utilize an
almost limitless reservoir of human and other resources in the development and completion of this
manuscript and to vastly improve and update the previous edition. A visible example is the CD that
accompanies this book.
Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience
broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy are required. The au-
thor and the publisher of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable
in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with
the standards accepted at the time of publication.
Our satisfaction in writing the second English edition of this book is easy to
imagine: not only are we assured of the utility of our work, but also have the
opportunity to enlarge and revise it.We have attempted to do this in various
ways. We have removed oversights and errors; we have made a few additions
and expanded a little on all chapters; we have re-written and simplified
various parts which students had found obscure or difficult to understand;
lastly, we have updated the bibliography, with the aim of offering useful
suggestions for further readi...
There are men who are commonly stigmatized as moneta~
cranks. The monetary crank suggests a method for making
everybody prosperous by monetary measures. His plans are.
illusory. However, they are the consistent application of a monetary
ideology entirely approved by contemporary public opinion
and espoused by the policies of almost all governments.
The objections raised against these ideological errors by the
economists are not taken into account by the governments,
political parties, and the press....
Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment
and drug therapy are required. The authors and the publisher of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable in
their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with the standards accepted at the time of
For this book I adopted two rules. There were to be no footnotes and all
arguments not essential to its chief conclusions but of interest or even
essential to the specialist were either to be put into smaller print to tell
the general reader that he might pass over them without missing points
on which the conclusions depended, or else were to be assembled in
Speech signals have a very wide dynamic range: Harsh “oh” and “b” type sounds have a large
amplitude, whereas softer sounds such as “sh” have small amplitudes. If a uniform quantization
scheme were used then although the loud sounds would be represented adequately the quieter
sounds may fall below the threshold of the LSB and therefore be quantized to zero and the
information lost. Therefore non-linear quantizers are used such that the quantization level at low
input levels is much smaller than for higher level signals.
Second, we reestimate our baseline specification while adding control variables, ranging
from initial fiscal and current account balances to initial bank credit risk and household debt
levels. These could plausibly have both affected the growth forecast error and been correlated
with fiscal consolidation forecasts. Not controlling for such factors could influence the
estimated relation between fiscal consolidation forecasts and growth forecast errors. We find,
however, that our results are robust to the introduction of such controls.
XXXV. THE WELFARE PRINCIPLE VERSUS THE MARKET PRINCIPLE 1. The Case Against the Market Economy
objections which the various schools of Sozialpolitik raise against the market economy are based on very bad economics. They repeat again and again all the errors that the economists
A heightened concern for the environment, combined with increasing
sophistication in tracking and modelling air currents, has led to the realization that local air
and water may be contaminated by pollutants emitted many miles away. Indeed, this
realization has resulted in inter-regional and international tensions regarding air pollution.
For example, much of the acid rain problem in the northeastern United States is a result of
SOx emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Midwest.
When constructing any regression model, we are always most interested in explaining what variables cause the dependent variable to change and by how much. This will always depend on a combination of economic theory; basic human behavior; and past experience.
Psychiatry is an ever-changing field. The publishers and authors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments in Psychiatry have made every effort to provide information that is accurate and complete as of the date of publication. However, in view of the rapid changes occurring in mental health treatment, as well as the possibility of human error, this site may contain technical inaccuracies, typographical or other errors. It is the responsibility of the