The pattern of treatment of issues in this new edition follows
that established with the fourth edition; nevertheless there
are important changes. For instance, in the preface to the
previous edition I wrote, “The five years since the third edition
of Human Evolution: An Illustrated Introduction have been
an extraordinarily productive time for paleoanthropology,”
not least because of the number of new species of early
humans that had been discovered. The same can be said of the
period between the fourth and fifth editions. Since 1999 four
new species of hominin have been announced.
Understanding the origins of humanity has long been one of our foremost
intellectual pursuits, and one that greatly interests the general public as
evidenced by museum attendance and by numerous media productions
and general interest publications. Progress toward an improved understanding
of our heritage is a continuing challenge for the scientific community, requiring
advances in a range of disciplines that include archaeology, anthropology, geology,
biology, oceanography, and genetics, and particularly research advances in
areas where two or more of these fields intersect.
When did humans appear? What is it
that makes us different from the
rest of the animals? In what way
did language develop? Why is it so
important to have deciphered the sequence
of the human genome? This book offers
answers to these and many other questions
about the mysteries and marvels of human
evolution. Scientists maintain that modern
humans originated in Africa because that is
where they have found the oldest bones.
My goal in this book is to introduce the reader to the evidence,
both historical and contemporary, for how the reciprocal interactions
between people and nature have developed, the urgency for
action now to prevent truly disastrous consequences, and to make
suggestions as to how we might go about doing so. While the book
does not follow the usual organization for an introduction to human
ecology, cultural ecology, or ecological anthropology text, the book
covers much of this material in what I hope is a more engaging
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: The promise and limitations of population exomics for human evolution studies...
As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in
emphasis within my ﬁeld over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics
within the subject: During the ﬁrst half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with
discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of
their deﬁciency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccu-
pation with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.
Scientific and technological advances have had profound effects on human life.
In the 19th century, most families could expect to lose one or more children to
disease. Today, in the United States and other developed countries, the death
of a child from disease is uncommon. Every day we rely on technologies made
possible through the application of scientific knowledge and processes.
"Ah, well," an American visitor is said to have soliloquized on the site of the battle of Hastings, "it is but a
little island, and it has often been conquered." We have in these few pages to trace the evolution of a great
empire, which has often conquered others, out of the little island which was often conquered itself.
The contemporary debate about the nature of human nature, centering
around the implications of Darwin’s theory of evolution, is the
newest chapter in a long history of explorations. Confl icting ideas about
human nature have always sat at the core of philosophical debates, often
educational ones. Plato and Aristotle, for example, had differing views on
human nature, and thus different approaches to educational philosophy.1
So too did Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Hume and Rousseau
Th ere is something about being human that instills in us a sense of wonder.
When we stop to think about it, the very idea of life seems such a mystery.
Where did we come from? How did life begin? When we look at the
sky, we wonder about the vastness of the universe and whether other life
may exist there. If we look through a microscope at a drop of pond water,
we are amazed at the variety of tiny creatures we see.
Since cells form the very basis of life, it is only natural that our sense
of wonder extends to the cell. Where did...
This small volume is based upon three lectures on Eugenics delivered at Oberlin College in April, 1910. In
preparing them for publication many extensions and a few additions have been made in order to present the
subject more adequately and to include some very recent results of eugenic investigation.
Few subjects have come into deserved prominence more rapidly than has Eugenics. Biologists, social
workers, thoughtful students and observers of human life everywhere, have felt the growing necessity for
some kind of action leading to what are now recognized as eugenic ends.
When the history of the Nineteenth Century--'the Wonderful Century,' as it has, not inaptly, been
called--comes to be written, a foremost place must be assigned to that great movement by which evolution has
become the dominant factor in scientific progress, while its influence has been felt in every sphere of human
speculation and effort. At the beginning of the Century, the few who ventured to entertain evolutionary ideas
were regarded by their scientific contemporaries, as wild visionaries or harmless 'cranks'--by the world at
large, as ignorant 'quacks' or 'designing atheists.
This tutorial is about the evolution of speech technology from research to a mature industry. Today, spoken language communication with computers is becoming part of everyday life. Thousands of interactive applications using spoken language technology— known also as “conversational machines”—are only phone calls away, allowing millions of users each day to access information, perform transactions, and get help. Speech recognition, language understanding, text-to-speech synthesis, machine learning, and dialog management enabled this revolution after more than 50 years of research.
Chapter 20 describes evolution at the molecular level. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: The origin of life on earth, the evolution of genomes, the organization of genomes, a comprehensive example: rapid evolution in the immune response and in HIV.
This first research project deals with the Human Genome Project, the genetic sequencing exercise of humanity. An extraordinary international project of biological science will add new, and undo old, knowledge about our evolution as a species. ’It is, though, a controversial subject, and we thought we would start in two phases. Dr Jeff Lever’s paper published here worries aloud whether we teach evolutionary theory properly and with sufficient depth to pupils and scholars at our schools.
The topics discussed in this chapter are: What facts form the base of our understanding of evolution? What are the mechanisms of evolutionary change? What evolutionary mechanisms result in adaptation? How is genetic variation maintained within populations? What are the constraints on evolution? How have humans influenced evolution?
The tourism industry offers an enormous choice of jobs for those who are suitably qualified.
The World Travel and Tourism Council in their Blueprint for New Tourism (2003) described
travel and tourism as ‘one of the world’s largest industries, responsible for 200 million jobs
and over 10% of global GDP’. But what are your chances of getting a top job?
In the summer of 2003 one of the editors attended a meeting to discuss the possibilities
of a major training scheme for employees in the travel and trade industry.
To better understand the contemporary world, the world of innovation and
technology, the science should try to synthesize and assimilate the social science and
humanities in the development of our civilization.
When it comes to advocating animal conservation, it is difficult to be
convincing without becoming alarmist. The fact is, time is running out for
many of the world’s animal species. Habitat loss, introduced species, overexploitation
and pollution, all caused by human activities, combine with
stochastic factors to place ever-increasing pressure on natural populations
With some six billion mobile subscriptions now in use worldwide, around three-quarters of the world’s inhabitants now have access to a mobile phone. Mobiles are arguably the most ubiquitous modern technology in some developing countries, more people have access to a mobile phone than to clean water, a bank account or even electricity. Mobile communications now offer major opportunities to advance human development from providing basic access to education or health information to making cash payments and stimulating citizen involvement in democratic processes.