Human evolution

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  • The pattern of treatment of issues in this new edition follows that established with the fourth edition; nevertheless there are important changes. For instance, in the preface to the previous edition I wrote, “The five years since the third edition of Human Evolution: An Illustrated Introduction have been an extraordinarily productive time for paleoanthropology,” not least because of the number of new species of early humans that had been discovered. The same can be said of the period between the fourth and fifth editions. Since 1999 four new species of hominin have been announced.

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  • Understanding the origins of humanity has long been one of our foremost intellectual pursuits, and one that greatly interests the general public as evidenced by museum attendance and by numerous media productions and general interest publications. Progress toward an improved understanding of our heritage is a continuing challenge for the scientific community, requiring advances in a range of disciplines that include archaeology, anthropology, geology, biology, oceanography, and genetics, and particularly research advances in areas where two or more of these fields intersect.

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  • When did humans appear? What is it that makes us different from the rest of the animals? In what way did language develop? Why is it so important to have deciphered the sequence of the human genome? This book offers answers to these and many other questions about the mysteries and marvels of human evolution. Scientists maintain that modern humans originated in Africa because that is where they have found the oldest bones.

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  • My goal in this book is to introduce the reader to the evidence, both historical and contemporary, for how the reciprocal interactions between people and nature have developed, the urgency for action now to prevent truly disastrous consequences, and to make suggestions as to how we might go about doing so. While the book does not follow the usual organization for an introduction to human ecology, cultural ecology, or ecological anthropology text, the book covers much of this material in what I hope is a more engaging organization....

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: The promise and limitations of population exomics for human evolution studies...

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  • As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccu- pation with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.

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  • Scientific and technological advances have had profound effects on human life. In the 19th century, most families could expect to lose one or more children to disease. Today, in the United States and other developed countries, the death of a child from disease is uncommon. Every day we rely on technologies made possible through the application of scientific knowledge and processes.

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  • "Ah, well," an American visitor is said to have soliloquized on the site of the battle of Hastings, "it is but a little island, and it has often been conquered." We have in these few pages to trace the evolution of a great empire, which has often conquered others, out of the little island which was often conquered itself.

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  • The contemporary debate about the nature of human nature, centering around the implications of Darwin’s theory of evolution, is the newest chapter in a long history of explorations. Confl icting ideas about human nature have always sat at the core of philosophical debates, often educational ones. Plato and Aristotle, for example, had differing views on human nature, and thus different approaches to educational philosophy.1 So too did Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Hume and Rousseau

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  • Th ere is something about being human that instills in us a sense of wonder. When we stop to think about it, the very idea of life seems such a mystery. Where did we come from? How did life begin? When we look at the sky, we wonder about the vastness of the universe and whether other life may exist there. If we look through a microscope at a drop of pond water, we are amazed at the variety of tiny creatures we see. Since cells form the very basis of life, it is only natural that our sense of wonder extends to the cell. Where did...

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  • This small volume is based upon three lectures on Eugenics delivered at Oberlin College in April, 1910. In preparing them for publication many extensions and a few additions have been made in order to present the subject more adequately and to include some very recent results of eugenic investigation. Few subjects have come into deserved prominence more rapidly than has Eugenics. Biologists, social workers, thoughtful students and observers of human life everywhere, have felt the growing necessity for some kind of action leading to what are now recognized as eugenic ends.

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  • When the history of the Nineteenth Century--'the Wonderful Century,' as it has, not inaptly, been called--comes to be written, a foremost place must be assigned to that great movement by which evolution has become the dominant factor in scientific progress, while its influence has been felt in every sphere of human speculation and effort. At the beginning of the Century, the few who ventured to entertain evolutionary ideas were regarded by their scientific contemporaries, as wild visionaries or harmless 'cranks'--by the world at large, as ignorant 'quacks' or 'designing atheists.

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  • This tutorial is about the evolution of speech technology from research to a mature industry. Today, spoken language communication with computers is becoming part of everyday life. Thousands of interactive applications using spoken language technology— known also as “conversational machines”—are only phone calls away, allowing millions of users each day to access information, perform transactions, and get help. Speech recognition, language understanding, text-to-speech synthesis, machine learning, and dialog management enabled this revolution after more than 50 years of research.

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  • Chapter 20 describes evolution at the molecular level. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: The origin of life on earth, the evolution of genomes, the organization of genomes, a comprehensive example: rapid evolution in the immune response and in HIV.

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  • This first research project deals with the Human Genome Project, the genetic sequencing exercise of humanity. An extraordinary international project of biological science will add new, and undo old, knowledge about our evolution as a species. ’It is, though, a controversial subject, and we thought we would start in two phases. Dr Jeff Lever’s paper published here worries aloud whether we teach evolutionary theory properly and with sufficient depth to pupils and scholars at our schools.

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  • The topics discussed in this chapter are: What facts form the base of our understanding of evolution? What are the mechanisms of evolutionary change? What evolutionary mechanisms result in adaptation? How is genetic variation maintained within populations? What are the constraints on evolution? How have humans influenced evolution?

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  • The tourism industry offers an enormous choice of jobs for those who are suitably qualified. The World Travel and Tourism Council in their Blueprint for New Tourism (2003) described travel and tourism as ‘one of the world’s largest industries, responsible for 200 million jobs and over 10% of global GDP’. But what are your chances of getting a top job? In the summer of 2003 one of the editors attended a meeting to discuss the possibilities of a major training scheme for employees in the travel and trade industry.

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  • To better understand the contemporary world, the world of innovation and technology, the science should try to synthesize and assimilate the social science and humanities in the development of our civilization.

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  • When it comes to advocating animal conservation, it is difficult to be convincing without becoming alarmist. The fact is, time is running out for many of the world’s animal species. Habitat loss, introduced species, overexploitation and pollution, all caused by human activities, combine with stochastic factors to place ever-increasing pressure on natural populations (Primack 2002).

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  • With some six billion mobile subscriptions now in use worldwide, around three-quarters of the world’s inhabitants now have access to a mobile phone. Mobiles are arguably the most ubiquitous modern technology in some developing countries, more people have access to a mobile phone than to clean water, a bank account or even electricity. Mobile communications now offer major opportunities to advance human development from providing basic access to education or health information to making cash payments and stimulating citizen involvement in democratic processes.

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