Chapter 27 - The reproductive system (part c), the main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Establishing the ovarian cycle, establishing the ovarian cycle, hormonal interactions during a 28-day ovarian cycle, uterine (menstrual) cycle, effects of estrogens,...
Women usually produce one mature egg per menstrual cycle. Because IVF is so expensive,
current clinical practice is to give women hormonal drugs to stimulate multiple eggs in one
cycle, to increase their chances of pregnancy. For this process, women inject three different
hormones over the course of four to six weeks to “shut down” their ovaries, “hyperstimulate”
them, and to control the timing that the mature eggs will be released.
Medical practitioners and health care educators must be continually vigilant of the
growing and ever-changing health issues related to girls and women who lead an active
lifestyle and participate in sports and exercise. There have been landmark legislations
that have changed the social perception that girls and women not only can, but should
be physically active. With any changing social milieu, there are evolving health issues
associated with the journey.
Only human females and some other higher primates have a regular
monthly menstrual cycle. Humans, however, are able to mate at any time.
Females of almost all other mammal species will mate only at speciﬁc
times during a year. These times are known as estrus or “heat.” It is only
during estrus that egg cells are released for fertilization. Estrus occurs in
wolves and deer once a year, in dogs usually twice a year, in cows and
horses once a month, and in rats and mice every few days.
Ovulation, mating, and fertilization occur on a speciﬁc timetable.