Quinolinic acid (QUIN) excitotoxicity is mediated by elevated intracellular
levels, and nitric oxide-mediated oxidative stress, resulting in DNA
damage, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, NAD
deple-tion and cell death. We evaluated the effect of a series of polyphenolic
compounds [i.e. epigallocatechin gallate (EPCG), catechin hydrate, curcu-min, apigenin, naringenin and gallotannin] with antioxidant properties on
QUIN-induced excitotoxicity on primary cultures of human neurons....
Human neuronal growth inhibitory factor (hGIF) is able to inhibit the out-growth of neurons. As compared with the amino acid sequences of metallo-thionein 1⁄2, hGIF contains two insertions: a Thr at position 5 and an
acidic hexapeptide EAAEAE(55–60) close to the C-terminus. Moreover, all
mammalian growth inhibitory factor sequences contain a conserved
Phenothiazine drugs, including chlorpromazine and levomepromazine, have been being widely used as neuroleptics (major tranquilizers), antiparkinsonian drugs and antihistaminics for a long time . Table 1.1 shows chemical structures of representative phenothiazines. These drugs show blocking action on D2 receptors of dopaminergic neurons; there is close relationship between the receptor blocking and tranquilizing actions. The dopamine D2 receptor-blocking actions provoke extrapyramidal symptoms, such as muscular stiffness, tremor and ptyalism.
Many of antidepressants exert their effects by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and by accerelating the release of them at synaptic terminals of neurons in the brain. As characteristic structures of such drugs showing antidepressive effects, many of them have tricyclic or tetracyclic nuclei; this is the reason why they are called “tricyclic antidepressants or tetracyclic antidepressants”. There are many cases of suicides using the antidepressants; their massive intake sometimes causes death.
Phenotypic heterogeneity occurs when more than one phenotype is caused by allelic mutations (e.g., different mutations in the same gene) (Table 62-4). For example, laminopathies are monogenic multisystem disorders that result from mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the nuclear lamins A and C. Twelve autosomal dominant and four autosomal recessive disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene.
This chapter students will be able to: List the basic functions of the nervous system; explain the structural and functional divisions of the nervous system; list the types of neuroglia and cite their functions; define neuron, describe its important structural components, and relate each to a functional role;...
Chapter 11 - Fundamentals of the nervous system and nervous tissue (part b). In this chapter, you will learn: Define resting membrane potential and describe its electrochemical basis, compare and contrast graded potentials and action potentials, explain how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons,...
Chemistry comprises two related but distinct activities:(i)the quest for an understanding of matter and material change,(ii)the utilization of material change for human ends.Ideally, thefirst activity provides the necessary know-how for the pursuit of the second, but in practice, the help it can give is only partial, and the second activity has to fall back on trial and error techniques in order to achieve its ends. This means that a good chemist is one who not only has a mastery of chemical theory, but also a good knowledge of chemical facts.
Apoptosis in the developing nervous system results in naturally occurring
cell death (NOCD), a necessary and desirable process. NOCD effectively
eliminates neurons that have made faulty synapses or have not reached
In the rest of the organism, apoptosis is essential for
organogenesis, sculpts digits and extremities, and plays a role in determining
polarity of structures by contributing to directional growth of cell populations.
Failure of carefully orchestrated and effective apoptosis in the developing
fetus can have serious and long-lasting effects in the adult.
Among the swallowing disorders, dysphagia is the most prevalent and dangerous due
to the fact it can lead to tumor formation. The classification of swallowing disorders
into obstructive and non-obstructive including e.g. lower motor neuron dysfunction,
autoimmune disease and achalasia were discussed in this chapter. The authors also
referred to motility disorders in diabetic neuropathy, alcoholism, psychiatric illness
and scleroderma – an autoimmune disease that causes weakening of the tissues of the
They found that AAV5 and 7-syn-GFP resulted in the highest percentage of
nigral dopaminergic neurons transduction, where AAV7 showed the highest efficiency
in transducing the nigrostriatal projection pathway. Accordingly, they conclude that
AAV7-syn-GFP is the most suitable SN gene delivery vehicle in mice. In the eleventh
chapter, Okada et al. developed a new method of producing AAV vectors. They
applied these AAV vectors in muscle transduction for the treatment of Duchenne
muscular dystrophy (DMD). In chapter twelve, Sunico et al.
Fortunately, this new reality coincides with more positive developments new to this century.
We can move information and goods faster around the globe than ever before; we can produce
more food and more goods with less investment of resources; our technology and science gives
us at least, the potential to look deeper into and better understand natural systems. From
space, we can see and study the Earth as an organism whose health depends on the health of
al its parts. We have the power to reconcile human affairs with natural laws and to thrive in the
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài:" Nicotine signals through muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in both human bronchial epithelial cells and airway fibroblasts...
Mercury is thought to be one of the first metals used by humans. Historical records provide evidence
of mercury use by ancient Chinese and Hindu civilizations. Archaeologists have also found traces of
mercury in an Egyptian tomb dating from 1500 BC and in the writing of a Chinese alchemist around
4500 BC. Both the Egyptians and Chinese may have been using the mercury ore, cinnabar, as a pigment
to paint their tombs, anoint their statues and even preserve their dead.
Many civilizations believed mercury had mystical properties and the power to prolong life.
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have enabled millions of people in the world to have
biological children who otherwise would not have been able to do so. According to the European
Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology, more than three million babies have been
born using ART worldwide in the last 30 years, enabling infertile women and men; single
women and men; and lesbian, gay, and transgender couples to form genetically-related families.
These new technologies have transformed the way we view reproduction.
The Malouf Report provided much of the guidance for our existing management approach, for example, the ban on the commercial hunt of whitecoats (harp seals) and bluebacks (hooded seals) and on the use of large vessels more than 65 feet long. The commercial hunt is now carried out largely from inshore boats owned and operated by coastal residents.
With a plentiful and sustainable seal resource hunted well below its TAC for many years, DFO has concentrated on improving and enforcing hunting practices and regulatory and licensing requirements.
The Ethiopian Boran breed is one of the cattle breeds widely used in Ethiopia. The breed
is well adapted to semi-arid tropical conditions, has a high degree of heat tolerance, is
tolerant to many of the diseases prevailing in the tropics and has the ability to survive
long periods of feed and water shortage (Ojango et al. 2006). These properties have
genetic basis and have been acquired by natural and human selection over generations.
They are all essential for successful animal production in the tropics.