Human obesity

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Obesity-A practical guide" presents the following contents: White adipose tissue - Beyond fat storage, brown adipose tissue and obesity, role of neuro endocrine system in obesity, oxidative stress and obesity, genetics of human obesity, obesity and coronary heart disease, obesity and diabetes,...

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  • A central pathway through which leptin acts to regulate appetite and body weight. Leptin signals through proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus to induce increased production of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), requiring the processing enzyme PC-1 (proenzyme convertase 1). α-MSH acts as an agonist on melanocortin-4 receptors to inhibit appetite, and the neuropeptide AgRp (Agouti-related peptide) acts as an antagonist of this receptor. Mutations that cause obesity in humans are indicated by the solid green arrows.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Adipose tissue transcriptomic signature highlights the pathological relevance of extracellular matrix in human obesity...

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 74. Biology of Obesity Biology of Obesity: Introduction In a world where food supplies are intermittent, the ability to store energy in excess of what is required for immediate use is essential for survival. Fat cells, residing within widely distributed adipose tissue depots, are adapted to store excess energy efficiently as triglyceride and, when needed, to release stored energy as free fatty acids for use at other sites.

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  • the human body needs nutrients to 3 as calcium, iron and zinc in the juvenile stage. In addition to providing nutrients, the split meals a day, eat slowly and chew very positive effects help this little group of obesity and diseases related to metabolism.

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  • Significantly revised and updated, this second edition of the bestselling Handbook of Nutrition and Food welcomes contributions from several new authors, including Elaine B. Feldman and Johanna Dwyer, notable leaders in nutritional science. Retaining the high level of scientific research, accessible language, and attention to detail of the original, this new edition reflects the changes and developments of the past six years in nutrition research by adding 12 new chapters and tripling the number of referential web addresses. ...

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  • The main audiences and stakeholders who must be engaged for programs to be effective in changing food marketing to children reflect the societal sectors most closely associated with food, marketing, and health: The food and beverage industry could take several actions to address its role in the childhood obesity epidemic. First, food and beverage marketers should take steps to avoid using promotional tactics that attract children to unhealthy eating. The industry should research and adopt a code ...

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  • As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccu- pation with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.

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  • Oxidative stress state is involved in the aging process as well as in a vast array of pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, cancer, and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

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  • Recently, Th17 cells were identified as a new subset of T helper cells unrelated to Th1 or Th2 cells. They are a subset of T helper cells characterized by IL-17 production, differentiated from naïve T cells in the presence of both transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and IL-6 in mice, and are implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) (Langrish et al. 2005).

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  • Attempts to meet GHGE targets from the food chain must not be made in isolation because any dietary recommendations to reduce GHGEs must also meet dietary requirements for the health of the population. The most recent population-based energy and nutrient requirements were published in 1991 by the Department of Health (DoH 1991), with subsequent recommendations for specific food items such as fruit and vegetables, red and processed meat, and fish set by other organisations such as the Food Standards Agency and the World Cancer Research Fund (FSA 2007, WCRF 2007).

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  • As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccupation with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.

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  • In a world where food supplies are intermittent, the ability to store energy in excess of what is required for immediate use is essential for survival. Fat cells, residing within widely distributed adipose tissue depots, are adapted to store excess energy efficiently as triglyceride and, when needed, to release stored energy as free fatty acids for use at other sites. This physiologic system, orchestrated through endocrine and neural pathways, permits humans to survive starvation for as long as several months.

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  • Obesity (defined as body mass Index [BMI] 95th percentile, or BMI score z 2.0) is a well defined and very complex disease of which overweight is merely one of the signs. Increasing obesity prevalence in youth over the last three decades has led to growing evidence of its implications for human health.

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  • Over the last few years leaded petrols have been phased out of use. However this has resulted in higher levels of benzene and other aromatics in the substitute unleaded petrol. Benzene breaks down quickly in the environment and is not stored in the tissues of plants or animals. However, it is still hazardous to humans at high levels as it can cause several diseases of the blood including leukemia (cancer of the white blood cells). Benzene monitoring programmes were started in New Zealand in 1994 and are continuing because the levels in some locations were found...

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  • Endocrine disruptors function by: (i) Mimicking the action of a naturally-produced hormone, such as estrogen or testosterone, thereby setting off similar chemical reactions in the body; (ii) Blocking hormone receptors in cells, thereby preventing the action of normal hormones; or (iii) Affecting the synthesis, transport, metabolism and excretion of hormones, thus altering the concentrations of natural hormones.

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  • In the kidney, Th17 effector cells have been demonstrated in biopsy samples in human glomerulonephritis (Abdulahad et al. 2009) and may participate in the pathogenesis of proliferative glomerulonephritis via production of IL-17 and direct induction of renal inflammation (Kim et al. 2009; Miossec et al. 2009; Turner et al. 2010; Kitching and Holdsworth 2011). Recent studies utilizing genetically engineered mice showed that RORγt promotes the development of crescentic glomerulonephritis by directing nephritogenic Th17 responses (Steinmetz et al. 2011) .

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  • Adiponectin acts as an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that protects against obesity-linked metabolic disease, which is generally associated with endo-plasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The physiological effects of adiponectin on energy metabolism in the liver are mediated by its receptors.

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  • As you consider your future and the possibility of operating a personal or family business, learn what it takes to successfully launch a small business venture. Recognize entrepreneurial opportunities, challenges and rewards, and immerse yourself in skills and terminology pertinent to the business sector.

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  • Obesity is a central feature of the metabolic syndrome and is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance and type II diabetes. Here, we investigated the contribution of human apoliprotein E3 and mouse apoli-protein E to the development of diet-induced obesity in response to western-type diet. Our data show that apolipoprotein E contributes to the development of obesity and other related metabolic disorders, and that human apolipoprotein E3 is more potent than mouse apolipoprotein E in promoting obesity in response to western-type diet. ...

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