Transmission of Genetic Disease
Origins and Types of Mutations A mutation can be defined as any change in the primary nucleotide sequence of DNA regardless of its functional consequences. Some mutations may be lethal, others are less deleterious, and some may confer an evolutionary advantage. Mutations can occur in the germline (sperm or oocytes); these can be transmitted to progeny. Alternatively, mutations can occur during embryogenesis or in somatic tissues.
For many years, interest in the prevention of diseases in children was concentrated
on improvement of the postnatal environment. However, since the major problems
of infectious diseases and nutrition were solved with the help of vaccinations and
better feeding regimes, it became clear that new approaches were needed to prevent
and treat the disorders and problems we are facing now - problems mainly arising in
Twenty years after the discovery of neural stem cells, the question whether the central nervous system can be considered among regenerative tissues is still open. On one side, deep characterization of neural stem and progenitor cells, their niches, and their progeny in brain neurogenic sites overtly showed that new neurons can be generated in the brain of adult mammals, including humans.