Human settlement

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  • This book is an attempt to situate archaeology within the domain of contemporary human affairs, and to forge a new methodology for coping with environmental problems from an archaeological perspective. From this perspective, the papers included in this volume highlight the aspects of the historical relationships between people and climatic change that are potentially useful in coping with current climatic fluctuations.

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  • The Habitat Agenda is a complex document embra cing a variety of issues under the two main themes; Adequate Shelter for All and Sustainable Human Settlements in an Urbanizing World. Thus, a detailed and comprehensive assessment of all relevant aspects would be difficult to present within the framework of national reports. In addition, when it comes to measu ring progress on the implementation of the Habitat Agenda, five years is a short period.

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  • In response to climate change, many countries are likely to invest in even more infrastructure for coastal defenses and flood control to reduce the vulnerability of human settlements to climate change. Increased water shortages will increase demand for new irrigation facilities and new reservoirs. Similarly, natural ecosystems can reduce vulnerability to natural hazards and extreme climatic events and complement, or substitute for, more expensive infrastructure investments to protect coastal and riverine settlements.

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  • The last decade has contributed significantly to the development of research on the biogeochemistry of tropical mangrove ecosystems. Also obvious during the last decade is the continued and dramatic destruction of natural tropical mangrove resources in Southeast Asia (Fig. 1.1). The naturally high productivity of tropi- cal mangroves has traditionally been exploited for a wide variety of purposes, both as sources of forestry or fisheries products and they have also been used for human settlement (Hatcher et al., 1989; Platong, 1998).

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  • With a vision and a strategy the 21st century city will be green, a healthy place for all and will generate zero net pollution. This book offers a vision and a strategy. Productive urban landscapes have two huge challenges to address: CO2 emissions are projected to increase by two-thirds in the next 20 years, and as the global food production increases so does the number of people going hungry, with the number of urban hungry soaring. The symbiotic relationship between a productive landscape and the human settlement system is as old as civilization.

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  • Reducing Poverty and Improving the Environment and Citizen Health in Brazil Favelas (slums) are a primary feature of urban development in Brazil. These informal settlements often occupy environmentally precarious areas such as steep hillsides and riverbanks, and usually lack key infrastructure, in particular sanitation and sewerage systems. This has resulted in increased rates of disease and mortality. Brazil has, however, made significant steps in addressing the problems which beset the favelas.

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  • Life in cities—i.e., in organized human settlements, which are mostly referred to as communities in this book—is possible only if people have mobility1 on a daily basis—the ability to move around so that they can do what they have to do or like to do. One char- acterization of a city is that it consists of specialized, frequently clustered, activities that perform discrete functions. Residences are separate from workplaces, major shopping is concentrated in identifiable centers, and larger entertainment and relaxation facil- ities are found at specific locations.

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  • Two hundred years ago, Lewis and Clark led their “Corps of Discovery” on an unprecedented expedition to explore the vast dimensions of the nation’s longest and largest river basin—the Missouri. Their central charge was to seek a water route to the Pacific Ocean to support commerce and development. Since those early days, the Missouri River and its tributaries have occupied a unique place in United States history.

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  • A brief synthesis of the state of the environment is given using the main themes in AEO-1 as the baseline, but discussing this within the context of the Brundtland report and the programme areas of NEPAD-EAP. Where appropriate, the general regional situation has been placed in the global context. Six thematic areas, forming the basis of the chapters, have been used in the analysis – Atmosphere, Land, Freshwater, Forests and Woodlands, Coastal and Marine Environments, and Biodiversity.

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  • As minister responsible for human settlements issues in the Norwegian Government, I want to underline the responsibility of governments to take active action to improve the living conditions of the underprivileged in society. In Istanbul we reaffirmed our commitments to the full and progressive realisa- tion of the right to housing and recognised an obliga- tion by Governments to enable people to obtain shelter and to protect and improve dwellings and neighbourhoods. Now – five years later – we still have a long way to go.

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  • The USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program seeks to assess the condition and trend of the forests of the U.S. FIA recently assumed responsibility for all former Forest Health Monitoring program (FHM) plot work on a national level, and is currently active in 32 states. Lichen community monitoring was included in FIA in order to address key assessment issues such as the impact of air pollution on forest resources, spatial and temporal trends in biodiversity, and the sustainability of timber harvesting.

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  • Green Infrastructure Neighbourhood Ecosystem Services (GINES) is derived from Tables [D] and [E]. It is an over-arching indicator which assumes a direct relationship between ecosystem health and the availability of regulating and cultural ecosystem services. Its calculation takes into account the fact that landscape artificial intensity reduces the supply of green infrastructure services and, at the same time, increases the number of potential beneficiaries (because of neighbourhood or easier access by transport infrastructures).

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  • Navigant conducted initial meetings with the Port Authority’s Chief Administrative Officer and  Human Resource departments.  Subsequent to the meetings, information requests were sent in  order  to  facilitate  the  review  of  key  documents  and  other  pertinent  information.  Navigant  reviewed multiple  documents,  conducted  numerous  in  person  and  telephonic  interviews  as  well as performed detailed analyses of base pay, overtime, “add‐on” compensation, healthcare  costs, and other benefit analyses.

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  • In Istanbul we also committed ourselves to the goal of sustainable human settlements in an urbanising world by developing societies that will make efficient use of resources within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. In Norway - as in most industrialised countries – there is an increasing awareness of the importance of environmental protection. There are many examples of “good practices” and environmental sound conduct.

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  • The romance of history pertains to no human annals more strikingly than to the early settlement of Virginia. The mind of the reader at once reverts to the names of Raleigh, Smith, and Pocahontas. The traveller's memory pictures in a moment the ivy-mantled ruin of old Jamestown. About the year 16--, the city of Jamestown, then the capital of Virginia, was by no means an unapt representation of the British metropolis; both being torn by contending factions, and alternately subjected to the sway of the Roundheads and Royalists.

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  • Politicians at Washington very generally failed to realize that the advent of President Hayes marked the dismissal of the issues of war and reconstruction. They regarded as an episode what turned out to be the close of an era. They saw, indeed, that public interest in the old issues had waned, but they were confident that this lack of interest was transient.

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  • The late war with Spain marks a momentous epoch in the progress of our country, whose history, stretching through the centuries of discovery, exploration, settlement, the struggle for independence, foreign and domestic war, lofty achievement in all departments of knowledge and progress, is the most interesting in human annals. It is a record full of instruction and incitement to endeavor, which must fill every American with pride in his birthright, and with gratitude to Him who holds the earth and the sea in the hollow of His hand.

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  • Indicators reveal children are somewhat better off in urban areas than their rural counterparts. However, analysis of data show a growing “urban penalty” related to numbers of the urban poor and deteriorating conditions. Malnutrition is also becoming more of an urban problem, related to higher food costs, reliance on a cash economy and unsanitary conditions.116 The urban poor live in informal settlements without the secure tenure that protects them from eviction. The lack of a legal address can also mean disenfranchisement and difficulty to access services (e.g.

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