Xem 1-20 trên 25 kết quả Hydrocarbon compounds
  • This book provides an authoritative state-of-the-art biotreatment review for three key contaminant groups: chlorinated solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Issues such as availability, toxicity, and treatability are discussed along with a summary of the latest bioremediation technologies. Special innovative research and development projects are presented for each contaminant group.

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  • BASICS OF CRUDE OIL Crude oils are complex mixtures containing many different hydrocarbon compounds. An average crude oil contains about 84% carbon, 14% hydrogen, 1 ÷ 3% sulfur and less than 1% each of nitrogen, oxygen, metals and salts. Simple crude oil assays are used to classify crude oils as paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic or mixed, based on the predominant proportion of similar hydrocarbon molecules. The comprehensive crude assays determine the value of the crude: its yield and quality of useful products.

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  • Internal combustion engines (ICE) are the main sources of powering for almost all road vehicles, yet many other machines too. Being under strength development for a number of years, they have already reached a relatively high level of technical excellence and now they also produce acceptable output parameters. Still, they are not devoid of drawbacks. Harmful exhaust emissions can be pointed as the most important here. This problem is the main focus of interest for automotive researchers and engineers.

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  • Wide agreement as to a clear and useful nomenclature is of great benefit in any field of science. The nomenclature here presented merits wide acceptance among terpene and other interested chemists because of the thorough way in which the careful work was done. Many versed in the chemistry of terpenes and many others experienced in naming chemical compounds were consulted. Full opportunity for criticism was offered.

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  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) multiringed, các hợp chất hữu cơ, đặc trưng không cực, trung lập, và kỵ nước. PAHs có hai hoặc nhiều vòng benzen hợp nhất trong một sắp xếp tuyến tính, bậc thang, hoặc cụm. Mặc dù có hơn 100 được biết đến PAHs Bảng 7.1 cung cấp cấu trúc hóa học, tên viết tắt, và trọng lượng phân tử cho các PAHs 15 được phân tích trong nghiên cứu này.

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  • As for the fi rst edition of this volume, the chapters comprise comprehensive discussions of the some of the major non-infectious disorders of fi nfi sh. It is the second volume of a threevolume series on fi sh diseases and disorders; Volume 1 deals with parasitic diseases and Volume 3 with microbial diseases. Reviews in the three volumes are written by leading international authorities who are actively working in the area or who have contributed greatly to our understanding of specifi c diseases or disorders....

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  • Xử lý sinh học được xác định bởi Cơ quan Bảo vệ Môi trường Hoa Kỳ (EPA) là một quá trình quản lý hoặc tự phát, trong đó các quá trình vi sinh được sử dụng để làm suy thoái hoặc biến đổi các chất gây ô nhiễm để ít độc hại hơn hoặc không độc hại hình thức, do đó khắc phục hoặc loại bỏ ô nhiễm môi trường (EPA, 1994).

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  • Secondary aerosol is produced by the oxidation of primary gases (sulphur dioxide, SO2, nitrogen oxides, NOx, and volatile organic compounds, VOCs,) to sulphuric and nitric acid, and organic vapours, followed by their gas-particle conversion [26, 77]. Finally, some of these acidic gases can be neutralised by reaction with ammonia gas or calcium carbonate (calcite) forming secondary aerosol (ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, calcium sulphate, calcium nitrate).

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  • At its twenty-fourth session, the UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum requested the Executive Director to develop a Medium-term Strategy for 2010–2013 with a “clearly defined vision, objectives, priorities, impact measures and a robust mechanism for review” (decision 24/9, paragraph 13).

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  • Petroleum contaminant decomposition and in-situ destruction may be accomplished using chemical oxidation technologies. In contrast to other remedial technologies, contaminant reduction can be seen in short time frames (e.g., weeks or months). As discussed in this chapter, a variety of chemical oxidants and application techniques can be used to bring oxidizing materials into contact with subsurface contaminants to remediate the contamination.

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  • The coexisting systemof VOCs is complex. A small change in environmental conditions (e.g., temperature) may result in changes on VOC concentrations, and also some VOCs may be involved in chemical reactions during the trans- portation. Meanwhile, as a consequence of high density of petroleumrefineries, synthetic organic chemical plants, and variousmobile sources, the formation rate and concentration of ozone in theHouston area are extremely high, and propene becomes a dominant reactive hydrocarbon (20).

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  • The ‘electronic book’ is a feature of this early 21st Century. I have been in academic life for several decades, and have I hope responded with flexibility to changes over that time. I have been using a word processor on a daily basis for twenty years and am deeply conscious of the advantages over even the most advanced typewriters. The first time I gave a presentation using Microsoft PowerPoint was in India about six years ago. I have with enthusiasm used PowerPoint for every invited talk or conference contribution I have given since. Such talks and contributions have been in...

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  • Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate), a widely used carbamate insecti-cide, induces cytochrome P450 1A gene expression in mammalian cells. This activity is usually mediated by the interaction of the compound with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

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  • Recovering useful hydrocarbons from sewage sludge using zirconia-supporting iron oxide catalysts was investigated. Zirconia has activity for decomposing water molecules to generate active oxygen and hydrogen species.

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  • Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. Organic compounds are structurally diverse. The range of application of organic compounds is enormous. They either form the basis of, or are important constituents of, many products including plastics, drugs, petrochemicals, food, explosives, and paints....

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  • Pesticides are divided to insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, acaricides and nematocides according to the organisms that they affect. There are various forms of insecticides; most are repellants or insect growth regulators used in agriculture, public health, horticulture or food storage. It is evident that insecticides have been used to boost food production to a considerable extent and to control disease vectors.

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  • Hydrogen peroxide is particularly effective when it reacts with ferrous iron (Fe2+ ) to produce Fenton's Reagent. Ferrous iron may be naturally present in the subsurface soils and/or groundwater, or it can be added as a catalyst solution together with the hydrogen peroxide to produce this aggressive chemical reaction. Hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ferrous iron (Fe2+ ) reacts to form hydroxyl radicals (OH•), ferric iron (Fe3+ ), and hydroxyl ions (OH- ). The hydroxyl ions are very powerful oxidizers, and react particularly with organic compounds.

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  • The predominant and persistent indoor VOCs included aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal and nonanal) and terpene hydrocarbons (e.g., a-pinene, 3-carene and d-limonene), which are characteristic of wood product emissions. Other compounds of interest included phenol, naphthalene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. VOC concentrations were generally typical of results reported for other new houses. Measurements of total VOCs were used to evaluate short-term changes in indoor VOC concentrations. ...

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  • It is evident that insecticides have been used to boost food production to a considerable extent and to control vectors of disease. However, these advantages that are of great economic benefits sometimes come with disadvantages when subjected to critical environmental and human health considerations. Many insecticides are newly synthesized whose health and environmental implications are unknown.

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  • Microbial spoilage is manifested by a variety of sensory cues such as off-colours, off- odours, off- flavours, softening of vegetables and fruits, and slime. However, even before it becomes obvious, microbes have begun the process of breaking down food molecules for their own metabolic needs. Sugars and easily digested carbohydrates are used first, plant pectins are degraded. Then proteins are attacked, producing volatile compounds with characteristic smells such as ammonia, amines, and sulfides.

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