Hydrogen fuel cells are one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engine hybrids and pure battery electric power for propelling passenger vehicles. Compared to internal combustion engine hybrid vehicles burning hydrocarbon fuels, fuel cell vehicles offer three primary advantages. First, the fuel cell system produces no tank-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions and no other harmful emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, or particulates. Second, the fuel cell system offers the potential for approximately 30% higher well-to-wheel energy efﬁciency.
The two most important environmental hazards faced by humankind today are air pollution and global warming. Both have a direct link with our current overdependence on fossil fuels. Pollutants produced from combustion of hydrocarbons now cause even more health problems due to the urbanization of world population
The major source of liquid fuels is crude petroleum; other sources are shale and tar sands. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels—gasoline and methanol—can be made from coal and natural gas. Ethanol, some of which is used as an automotive fuel, is derived from vegetable matter.
The atmosphere may be our most precious resource. Accordingly, the balance between its use and protection is a high priority for our civilization. While many of us would consider air pollution to be an issue that the modern world has resolved to a greater extent, it still appears to have considerable influence on the global environment. In many countries with ambitious economic growth targets the acceptable levels of air pollution have been transgressed. Serious respiratory disease related problems have been identified with both indoor and outdoor pollution throughout the world....
CHAPTER 4 7 LIQUID FOSSIL FUELS FROM PETROLEUM Richard J. Reed North American Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio
1 1 5 7 47.3
FUEL OILS 1 1 5 7 47.4 47.2.1 Kerosene 1519 47.2.2 Aviation Turbine Fuels 1525 47.5 47.2.3 Diesel Fuels 1 2 5 6 47.2.4 Summary 1 2 5 8
OILS FROM TAR &ANDS 1 2 5 8 OIL-WATER EMULSIONS 1 2 5 8
47.1 INTRODUCTION The major source of liquid fuels is crude petroleum; other sources are shale and tar sands. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels—gasoline and methanol—can be made from coal and natural gas.
In petroleum industry, it is desirable to produce lighter hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and gas–oil from unused heavy oils. Thus we have developed zirconia-supporting iron oxide catalysts View the MathML source to decompose petroleum residual oil (atmospheric distilled residual oil) with steam.
Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation
of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly
coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics.
Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon
combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within
the last several years.
The contributions in this book present an overview of utting edge research on natural gas
which is a vital component of world’s supply of energy. Natural gas is combustible mixture
of hydrocarbon gases, primarily methane but also heavier gaseous hydrocarbons such as
ethane, propane and butane. Unlike other fossil fuels, natural gas is clean burning and emits
lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the air. Therefore, it is considered as one
of the cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources applied in variety of residential,
commercial and industrial fields....
The petroleum fuels are a group of hydrocarbons refined and modified from the crude oil, and include more than 100 kinds of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. They are roughly classified into petroleum gas, gasoline, kerosene, light oil, heavy oil and others . This chapter deals with analysis of hydrocarbons of C3–C16 being included in automobile gasoline, purified kerosene (No.1 kerosene), automobile light oil for a diesel engine and liquefied petroleum (LP) gas. The petroleum oils, such as gasoline and kerosene, are frequently detected from specimens in fire cases.
Current regulatory policies place the alternative fuel industry at a critical junction. Emissions from alternative - fueled bus engines consistently indivate lower emissions of reactive hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter thaan diesel engines.
The ready availability of carbon through the exploitation of hydrocarbon oil reserves over the
past century has lead to a vast amount of organic compounds being introduced into the
environment either through the use of oil in fuels or the development and production of other
chemical products by industry. Literally tens of thousands of synthetic organic chemicals have
been and continue to be developed. Many organic chemicals are known to have potential
human health impacts and drinking-water quality standard listings developed.
Benzene is a colourless, liquid, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon that is a component of
petrol, or may result from incomplete combustion of fuels.
Benzene, a natural component of crude oil, is emitted from a range of industrial and
combustion sources. The major source of benzene is motor vehicles—both vehicle
exhaust (contributing approximately 75% to 80% of emissions) and evaporative
emissions (including evaporation losses from motor vehicles and evaporation losses
during the handling, distribution and storage of petrol).
Particulate emissions from road transport arise as direct emissions from vehicle exhausts, tyre and brake
wear and resuspension of road dust. In urban areas, emissions from road transport are thought to be the
major source of PM10. In general, diesel engine vehicles emit a greater mass of fine particulate matter, per
vehicle, than petrol engines.
Diesel emissions are mainly composed of soot particles, volatile hydrocarbons and some sulphate from
the fuel sulphur.
Unburned hydrocarbons represent another source of air
pollution associated with the use of fossil fuels (especially gasoline), even though they are
not a result of combustion. Much of the emission of unburned hydrocarbons to the air
occurs as a result of evaporation from fuel tanks (remember the smell of gasoline during
your last fill-up?) and as a result of leaks or spills. Taken individually, these events seem
trivially small. But on any given day millions of vehicles are being refilled with gasoline....
Adding oxygenates to gasoline has the effect of making the engine
run leaner: since some oxygen is already present in the fuel molecules, the total amount of
oxygen (from the air and from the oxygenates) relative to carbon and hydrogen in the fuel
is greater. Running the engine leaner reduces the emissions of CO substantially; it also
reduces the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons to some extent. Since the largest source
of CO emissions is the automobile exhaust, use of oxygenated fuels substantially reduces
the emissions of this pollutant.
Transportation involves the combustion of fossil fuels to produce energy translated into
motion. Pollution is created from incomplete carbon reactions, unburned hydrocarbons or other
elements present in the fuel or air during combustion. These processes produce pollutants of
various species, including carbon monoxide, soot, various gaseous and liquid vapour
hydro carbons, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, sulphate and nitrate particulates, ash and lead.
Flare gas. This is an associated gas obtained during crude oil
exploration, largely consisting of methane and higher
hydrocarbons. The use of flare gas—which is generally available
free of charge as a waste product—ensures a fuel source for on-
site power generation and, if required, the engines can also provide
a heat supply for surrounding facilities. Consequently this problem
gas, instead of flaring it off while causing ecological exposure, can
be used economically and practically.