The two most important environmental hazards faced by humankind today are air pollution and global warming. Both have a direct link with our current overdependence on fossil fuels. Pollutants produced from combustion of hydrocarbons now cause even more health problems due to the urbanization of world population
This is the first volume of Advances in Nanoporous Materials, a new book
series devoted to the science and application of all kinds of nanoporous
solids. Its intention is to publish comprehensive reviews of lasting value in
the field of nanoporous materials written by renowned experts. Its scope
covers all aspects of nanoporous solids, including their preparation and
structure, their post-synthetic modification, methods for their characterization
as well as their application in catalysis and adsorption/separation....
Petroleum refining operations can be separated into five basic areas: 1. Fractionation (distillation) is the separation of crude oil in atmospheric and vacuum distillation towers into different "fractions" or "cuts." 2. Conversion processes change the size and/or structure of hydrocarbon molecules. These processes include: − Decomposition by thermal and catalytic cracking; − Unification through alkylation and polymerization; − Alteration with isomerization and catalytic reforming. ...
Petroleum mixtures consist primarily of relatively unreactive complex hydrocarbons covering a wide boiling range. Such mixtures are difficult to separate by most analytical techniques. Therefore, the petroleum industry has for many years played a leading role in the development of chromatographic methods of analysis. Since the last book specifically concerned with chromatographic analysis of petroleum appeared 15 years ago, numerous advances have been made including developments in liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography, ...
Membrane separation has developed into an important technology for separating VOCs and other gaseous air pollutants from gas streams during the past 15 years. The ﬁrst commercial application was installed in 1990, and more than 50 systems have been installed in the chemical process industry worldwide.1 The technology utilizes a polymeric membrane that is more permeable to condensable organic vapors, such as C3+ hydrocarbons and aromatics, than it is to noncondensable gases such as methane, ethane, nitrogen, and hydrogen.