release of STH (and also other peptide hormones including insulin, glucagon, and gastrin). PRH: prolactin-RH remains to be characterized or established. Both TRH and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are implicated. PRIH inhibits the release of prolactin and could be identical with dopamine. Hypothalamic releasing hormones are mostly administered (parenterally) for diagnostic reasons to test AH function. Therapeutic control of AH cells. GnRH is used in hypothalamic infertility in women to stimulate FSH and LH secretion and to induce ovulation.
This textbook is primarily intended to provide undergraduate students of pharmacy with a clear and concise
account of basic endocrine function and dysfunction, at a level sufficient to meet the requirements of first- or
second year qualifying examinations. It is not intended to replace standard texts, but merely to serve as an
accompaniment and convenient revision guide.
The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is
well known for its role in the control of pituitary gonadotropin secretion,
but the hormone and receptor are also expressed in extrapituitary tissues
and tumor cells, including epithelial ovarian cancers.
Recently, we identified novel avian and amphibian
hypothalamic neuropeptides that inhibited gonadotropin
release and stimulated growth hormone release. They were
characterized by a similar structure including theC-terminal
LPLRF-NH2motif. To clarify that the expression of these
novel hypothalamicneuropeptides is aconservedproperty in
vertebrates, we characterized a cDNA encoding a similar
novel peptide, having LPLRF-NH2
from the goldfish brain,
by a combination of 3¢and 5¢rapid amplification of cDNA
ends (RACE). ...
Annane Annals of Intensive Care 2011, 1:7 http://www.annalsofintensivecare.com/content/1/1/7
Corticosteroids for severe sepsis: an evidencebased guide for physicians
Abstract Septic shock is characterized by uncontrolled systemic inflammation that contributes to the progression of organ failures and eventually death. There is now ample evidence that the inability of the host to mount an appropriate hypothalamic-pituitary and adrenal axis response plays a major in overwhelming systemic inflammation during infections.
gonadal (HPG) axis is subject to both positive feed-forward and negative
feedback regulation at several levels. At the level of the hypothalamus, early recognition of
the pulsatile nature of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion led to the notion of a
central ‘‘pulse generator”, the inherent oscillatory activity of which controls the secretory
rhythm of GnRH neurons (Knobil, 1980).
Role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the etiology of amenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus stimulates follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from the pituitary to induce ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Ovarian secretion of estradiol and progesterone controls the shedding of the endometrium, resulting in menses and, in combination with the inhibins, provides feedback regulation of the hypothalamus and pituitary to control secretion of FSH and LH.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) acting as an estrogen at the level of the hypothalamus to downregulate hypothalamic luteinizing hormone (LH) production results in decreased elaboration of testosterone by the testicle. For this reason, orchiectomy is equally as effective as moderate-dose DES, inducing responses in 80% of previously untreated patients with prostate cancer but without the prominent cardiovascular side effects of DES, including thrombosis and exacerbation of coronary artery disease.
Because of the physiologic importance of maintaining energy stores, voluntary weight loss is difficult to achieve and sustain.Appetite and metabolism are regulated by an intricate network of neural and hormonal factors. The hypothalamic feeding and satiety centers play a central role in these processes (Chap. 74). Neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) induce anorexia by acting centrally on satiety centers.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) I and II are hypothalamic deca-peptides with pivotal roles in the development of reproductive competence
and regulation of reproductive events. In this study, transcriptional regula-tion of the human GnRH IIgene was investigated.