This paper suggests refinements for the Distributional Similarity Hypothesis. Our proposed hypotheses relate the distributional behavior of pairs of words to lexical entailment – a tighter notion of semantic similarity that is required by many NLP applications. To automatically explore the validity of the defined hypotheses we developed an inclusion testing algorithm for characteristic features of two words, which incorporates corpus and web-based feature sampling to overcome data sparseness. ...
This work presents an agenda-based approach to improve the robustness of the dialog manager by using dialog examples and n-best recognition hypotheses. This approach supports n-best hypotheses in the dialog manager and keeps track of the dialog state using a discourse interpretation algorithm with the agenda graph and focus stack. Given the agenda graph and n-best hypotheses, the system can predict the next system actions to maximize multi-level score functions. To evaluate the proposed method, a spoken dialog system for a building guidance robot was developed.
Word and n-gram posterior probabilities estimated on N-best hypotheses have been used to improve the performance of statistical machine translation (SMT) in a rescoring framework. In this paper, we extend the idea to estimate the posterior probabilities on N-best hypotheses for translation phrase-pairs, target language n-grams, and source word reorderings. The SMT system is self-enhanced with the posterior knowledge learned from Nbest hypotheses in a re-decoding framework.
This paper describes a novel method for computing a consensus translation from the outputs of multiple machine translation (MT) systems. The outputs are combined and a possibly new translation hypothesis can be generated. Similarly to the well-established ROVER approach of (Fiscus, 1997) for combining speech recognition hypotheses, the consensus translation is computed by voting on a confusion network.
SHORT STORY BY O’HENRY
The Hypotheses Of Failure
Đây là một serries truyện ngắn anh ngữ nổi tiếng với những từ vựng quen thuộc. Nhằm giúp các em và các bạn yêu thich tiếng anh luyện tập và củng cố thêm kỹ năng đọc tiếng anh
his monograph presents methods for full comparative distributional analysis based on the relative distribution. This provides a general integrated framework for analysis, a graphical component that simplifies exploratory data analysis and display, a statistically valid basis for the development of hypothesis-driven summary measures, and the potential for decomposition - enabling the examination of complex hypotheses regarding the origins of distributional changes within and between groups.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài:
Construct development: The Suicide Trigger Scale (STS-2), a measure of a hypothesized suicide trigger state
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài:"Childhood infections and asthma: at the crossroads of the hygiene and Barker hypotheses...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Editorial: hypotheses about protein folding - the proteomic code and wonderfolds...
Chapter 9 - Hypothesis testing. After mastering the material in this chapter, you will be able to: Set Up appropriate null and alternative hypotheses, describe Type I and Type II errors and their probabilities, use critical values and p-values to perform a z test about a population mean when s is known,...
A better understanding of the influence of tobacco smoke on the host response to
periodontal infection has been the major concern in numerous studies whereas, limited
research has been published aiming to identify the influence of tobacco smoke on the dental
biofilm. Tobacco smoke has been shown to cause shifts in the microbial species that
comprise dental plaque (Haffajee & Socransky 2001, Kamma et al. 1999, Shiloah et al. 2000,
Umeda et al. 1998, van Winkelhoff et al. 2001, Zambon et al. 1996). In a recent study by our
group (Buduneli et al.
This is a survey of non-linear regression models, with an emphasis on the theory
of estimation and hypothesis testing rather than computation and applications,
although there will be some discussion of the last two topics. For a general
discussion of computation the reader is referred to Chapter 12 of this Handbook
by Quandt. My aim is to present the gist of major results; therefore, I will
sometimes omit proofs and less significant assumptions. For those, the reader
must consult the original sources....
In panel data models (as in single-equation multiple-regression models) we are interested in testing two types of hypotheses: hypotheses about the variances and covariances of the stochastic error terms and hypotheses about the regression coefficients. The general to simple procedure provides a good guide.
The Asian financial crisis has generated a lot of research, analysis and debate. The exact causes of the crisis are not firmly established, although various hypotheses have been offered. This paper presents one view of the genesis of the East Asian crisis. Several explanations are examined: managed exchange rates, over and undervalued currencies, crony capitalism, asset bubbles, Japanese devaluation, or “too much” capital account liberalization. A large part of the analysis centers around the proposition that the regime of managed exchange rates was at the core of the problem.
C H A P T E R
Test driving – sampling theory, estimation and hypothesis testing
This chapter will help you to:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■
understand the theory behind the use of sample results for prediction make use of the t distribution and appreciate its importance construct and interpret interval estimates of population means and population proportions work out necessary sample sizes for interval estimation carry out tests of hypotheses about population means, proportions and medians, and draw appropriate conclusions from them use the technology; the t distr...
The estimation process begins by assuming or hypothesizing that the least squares linear regression
model (drawn from a sample) is valid. The formal two-variable linear regression model is based on
the following assumptions:
(1) The population regression is adequately represented by a straight line: E(Yi) = μ(Xi) = β0 + β1Xi
(2) The error terms have zero mean: E(∈i) = 0
(3) A constant variance (homoscedasticity): V(∈i) = σ2
C H A P T E R
High performance – statistical inference for comparing population means and bivariate data
This chapter will help you to:
test hypotheses on the difference between two population means using independent samples and draw appropriate conclusions ■ carry out tests of hypotheses about the difference between two population means using paired data and draw appropriate conclusions ■ test differences between population means using analysis of variance analysis (ANOVA) and draw appropriate conclusions
Research is an activity which people undertake in order to find things in a systematic way as a means of increasing their knowledge base.
Dissertations must follow Graduate School guidelines, whereas criteria for style and organization of a research paper are at the discretion of the professor.
This book addresses the theme of the impacts of global warming on different specific fields, ranging from the regional and global economy, to agriculture, human health, urban areas, land vegetation, marine areas and mangroves. Despite the volume of scientific work that has been undertaken in relation to each of each of these issues, the study of the impacts of global warming upon them is a relatively recent and unexplored topic. The chapters of this book offer a broad overview of potential applications of global warming science.
Generalizing a Sample’s Findings to Its Population and Testing Hypotheses About Percents and Means.
Statistics Versus Parameters
• Statistics: values that are computed from information provided by a sample • Parameters: values that are computed from a complete census which are considered to be precise and valid measures of the population