The first version of this text was written to serve as lecture notes for a first term geology course in “Minerals and Rocks” at Aarhus Universityin Denmarkin 2003. In Aarhus this course is accompanied by a general “Introduction to Geology” course that presents, for example, the structure of the Earth, plate tectonics and paleontology. These topics are therefore not treated here, and some knowledge of the Earth´s structure and plate tectonicsis assumed.
4-5 Rocky Earth 6-7 A volcanic beginning 8-9 Making of a rock 10-11 Igneous rock 12-13 Sedimentary rock 14-15 Metamorphic rock 16-17 Rocks from space 18-19 Hidden beauty 20-21 Breakdown 22-23 Carving a path 24-25 Crystals 26-27 What a gem!
Written and edited by Caroline Bingham Designed by Helen Chapman Publishing manager Susan Leonard Managing art editor Clare Shedden Jacket design Chris Drew Picture researcher Sarah Stewart-Richardson Production Shivani Pandey DTP Designer Almudena Díaz Consultant Kim Dennis-Bryan PhD, FZS With thanks to Victoria Long for design assistance.
-Ðá macma (igneous rocks)
được xem là nguồn cội của các
-Tên gọi xuất phát từ tiếng
Lating (Ignis) nghĩa là lửa
- Đá macma là loại đá rất
cứng, gồm nhiều loại: đá granit,
Cấu tạo khối đồng chất :
The Geological Field Guide Series
The Field Description of Metamorphic Rocks, Norman Fry The Mapping of Geological Structures, Ken McClay Field Geophysics, Fourth edition John Milsom The Field Description of Igneous Rocks, Second edition Dougal Jerram and Nick Petford Sedimentary Rocks in the Field, Fourth edition Maurice Tucker
Earth Science is made up of many diﬀerent areas of geological study. Since
the Earth contains everything from clouds (meteorology) and oceans (marine
biology) to fossils (paleontology) and earthquakes (geology/plate tectonics),
there is a lot to choose from!
Because of its high reactivity, lithium metal is not found in its native state. The main sources of lithium are brine wells when subjected to evaporation as well as igneous rocks such as spodumine, lepidolite, and petalite. The name lithium comes from the Greek word ‘lithos’ meaning stone. Its discovery is generally attributed to Johan A. Arfvedson, who ﬁrst identiﬁed it in 1817. Lithium metal was isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy and William Thomas Brande, and R. W. E. Bunsen and A. Maththiessen, in 1855 by the electrolysis of lithium chloride. ...
In presenting this book, John Ashurst and I have
many people to thank, particularly Ian Bristow for his
admirable introduction to the subject of conservation
on which successive contributors have built;
and David Honeyborne, whose name has long been
associated with pioneering work in the field of stone
weathering. Many others are owed much, and it is a
debt which cannot adequately be repaid.
For my part I must thank John Ashurst, first and
foremost for the constant aid and encouragement he
Petrology, New Perspectives and Applications is designed for advanced graduate courses and professionals in petrology. The book includes eight chapters that are focused on the recent advances and application of modern petrologic and geochemical methods for the understanding of igneous, metamorphic and even sedimentary rocks. Research studies contained in this volume provide an overview of application of modern petrologic techniques to rocks of diverse origins.
Although phosphate rock and potash are used as raw
materials for a wide range of applications, the most
important use by far is the manufacture of mineral
The primary source of these minerals is geological ore
deposits formed through past sedimentary or igneous
activities. In the case of potash, concentrated brines
are also a significant source.
This chapter provides a brief overview of the major
activities involved in the mining, handling and benefi-
ciation of phosphate rock and potash ore....
Phuoc Hiep corundum occurrence has been discovered recently in the Central part of Vietnam (Quang Nam Province). Common protoliths in the region are high‐grade metamorphic rocks (typically of amphibolite‐granulite facies), such as garnet‐bearing amphibolites, gneisses and schists, intruded by igneous formations of different composition and age. To date, the rubies and fancy sapphires have been found in secondary, mostly alluvial deposits.
Beneficiation (or concentration) processes are gener-
ally used to upgrade the phosphate content by
removing contaminants and barren material prior to
further processing. A few ores are of sufficiently high
quality to require no further concentration. The natu-
rally occurring impurities contained in phosphate
rock ore depend heavily on the type of deposit (sedi-
mentary or igneous), associated minerals, and the
extent of weathering. Major impurities can include
organic matter, clay and other fines, siliceous material,
carbonates, and iron bearing minerals.