Immune defenses

Xem 1-20 trên 22 kết quả Immune defenses
  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Bacterial flagellin elicits widespread innate immune defense mechanisms, apoptotic signaling, and a sepsis-like systemic inflammatory response in mice...

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  • Blackleg fungi [Leptosphaeria maculans(asexual stage Phoma lingam) and Leptosphaeria biglobosa] are devastating plant pathogens with well-estab-lished stratagems to invade crucifers, including the production of enzymes that detoxify plant defenses such as phytoalexins.

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  • Cathelicidins are an important family of cationic host defense peptides in vertebrates with both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Fowlicidin-1 and fowlicidin-2 are two newly identified chicken cathelicidins with potent antibacterial activities. Here we report structural and func-tional characterization of the putatively mature form of the third chicken cathelicidin, fowlicidin-3, for exploration of its therapeutic potential.

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  • Agree that in consideration of and as a condition of acceptance of my participation in the Event, for myself, my executors and administrators, hereby waive all and any claim, right or cause of action against the Council which I or they might otherwise have, arising out of my injury or loss of any description whatsoever which I may suffer or sustain in the course of or consequence upon my participation or participation in the Event. Understand that while participating in the Event, I agree to abide by any rules; participate with care for other participants and members of the general...

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  • Infectious diseases have been known for thousands of years, although accurate information on their etiology has only been available for about a century. In the medical teachings of Hippocrates, the cause of infections occurring frequently in a certain locality or during a certain period (epidemics)was sought in “changes” in the air according to the theory of miasmas. This concept, still reflected in terms such as “swamp fever” or “malaria,” was the predominant academic opinion until the end of the 19th century, despite the fact that the Dutch cloth merchant A.

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  • Collectins are a family of collagenous calcium-dependent defense lectins in animals. Their polypeptide chains consist of four regions: a cysteine-rich N-terminal domain,a colla-gen-like region,ana-helical coiled-coil neck domain and a C-terminal lectin or carbohydrate-recognition domain. These polypeptide chains form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. The best studied family members are the mannan-binding lectin,which is secreted into the blood by the liver,and the surfactant proteins A andD,which are secreted into the pulmonary alveolar and airway lining fluid....

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  • We have previously shown that high density lipoprotein is the most abundant protein in the carp plasma and dis-plays bactericidal activityin vitro. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of its principal apolipoproteins, apoA-I and apoA-II, in defense. Both apolipoproteins were isolated by a two step procedure involving affinity and gel filtration chromatography and were shown to display bactericidal and/or bacteriostatic activity in the micromolar range against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including some fish patho-gens. ...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Immunity and other defenses in pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum...

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  • Events following entry of bacilli: Phagocytosis of M.tuberculosis by alveolar macrophages is the firstevent in the host-pathogen relationship that decidesoutcome of infection. Within 2 to 6 wk of infection,cell-mediated immunity (CMI) develops, and thereis an influx of lymphocytes and activatedmacrophages into the lesion resulting in granulomaformation. The exponential growth of the bacilli ischecked and dead macrophages form a caseum. Thebacilli are contained in the caseous centers of thegranuloma.

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  • The term ‘antimicrobial peptides’ refers to a large number of peptides first characterized on the basis of their antibiotic and antifungal activities. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, also called host defense peptides, participate in multiple aspects of immunity (inflammation, wound repair, and regulation of the adaptive immune sys-tem) as well as in maintaining homeostasis.

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  • Antigen binding to the B-cell receptor (BCR) of pre-mature B lymphocytes induces their apoptotic cell death, but binding to the BCR of mature B lymphocytes triggers activation and proliferation. Binding to pre-mature B lymphocytes is thought not only to function as a mechanism to exclude B-cell clones that possess the ability to react with self-antigen, but also to act as a defense mechanism in auto-immune diseases.

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  • Immune Response The innate and acquired immune responses to L. monocytogenes have been studied extensively in mice. Shortly after IV injection, most bacteria are found in Kupffer cells in the liver, with some organisms in splenic macrophages. Listeriae that survive the bactericidal activity of initially infected macrophages grow in the cytosol and spread from cell to cell. In the liver, the result is infection of hepatocytes. Neutrophils are crucial to host defense during the first 24 h of infection, while influx of activated macrophages from the bone marrow is critical subsequently.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 61. Disorders of Granulocytes and Monocytes Disorders of Granulocytes and Monocytes: Introduction Leukocytes, the major cells comprising inflammatory and immune responses, include neutrophils, T and B lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. These cells have specific functions, such as antibody production by B lymphocytes or destruction of bacteria by neutrophils, but in no single infectious disease is the exact role of the cell types completely established.

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  • As mentioned above, the first defensive strategy of the host against infection consists of a non-specific phase, where the mucus and its contents (for example defensin and lysozyme) play a major role. Other important soluble chemical factors are acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein, interferon, lactoferrin, sIgA, and the complement system (159) . • Viruses. Defensin plays an important role in defence against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. This protein is present in immune cells, to assists in the killing of phagocytized pathogens.

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  • Host Defense Mechanisms Preventing meningococcal growth in blood requires bactericidal and opsonic antibodies, complement, and phagocytes (Fig. 136-3). The major bactericidal antibodies are IgM and IgG, which (except for serogroup B) bind to the capsular polysaccharide. Immunity to meningococci is therefore serogroup specific. Antibodies to other surface (subcapsular) antigens may confer crossserogroup protection. PorA, PorB, Opc, and LOS appear to be major targets of cross-reactivity and of serogroup B bactericidal antibodies.

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  • Status of the Host Various host factors must be considered in the devising of antibacterial chemotherapy. The host's antibacterial immune function is of importance, particularly as it relates to opsonophagocytic function. Since the major host defense against acute, overwhelming bacterial infection is the polymorphonuclear leukocyte, patients with neutropenia must be treated aggressively and empirically with bactericidal drugs for suspected infection (Chap. 82). Likewise, patients who have deficient humoral immunity (e.g.

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  • This book reflects a major medical problem which is still under thorough studies. There is a number of clinical cases corresponding directly or indirectly to a certain alteration of the immune system, thus leading to various pathologic conditions. The unique defense, what humans have with their immunity, is rather often affected by infections, tumor processes, organ, tissue and cell transplantation, allergy, autoimmune processes, as well as different influences by the environment.

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  • Antimicrobial peptides participate in innate host defense by directly elimi-nating pathogens as a result of their ability to damage the microbial mem-brane and by providing danger signals that will recruit innate immune cells to the site of infection. Dermaseptin DA4 (DRS-DA4), a new antimicrobial peptide of the dermaseptin superfamily, was identified based on its chemo-tactic properties, contrasting with the currently used microbicidal proper-ties assessment.

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  • Ticks are obligate blood-feeding arachnids. During their long-lasting blood meal, they have to counteract the protective barriers and defense mecha-nisms of their host. These include tissue integrity, pain, hemostasis, and the inflammatory and immune reactions. Here, we describe a multigene family coding for five putative salivary metalloproteases induced during the blood meal ofIxodes ricinus.

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  • In the horseshoe crab, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces exocyto-sis by granular hemocytes, resulting in the secretion of various defense molecules, such as lectins and antimicrobial peptides, via a G protein-mediating signaling pathway. This response is a key component of the horseshoe crab innate immune response against infectious microorganisms. Here, we report an endogenous amplification mechanism for LPS-induced hemocytes exocytosis.

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