Following their lipophilicity, it is more plausible that vitamin E and ß-carotene cooperate to
protect membranes and lipoproteins from oxidative damages. Of course, as all antioxidants,
vitamin E exerts other biological functions that are independent from its antioxidant
properties, including modulation of cellular signaling, gene expression, immune response,
and many more. However, as opposed to other vitamins, lack of vitamin E results in rather
unspecific symptoms, also highlighting that this vitamin is mainly needed for its antioxidant
activity in vivo.