It has been recognized for many years that states of nutrient deficiency are associated
with an impaired immune response and with increased susceptibility to infectious
disease. In turn, infection can affect the status of several nutrients, thus setting
up a vicious circle of under nutrition, compromised immune function and infection.
Approaches to Passive Immunization Passive immunization is generally used to provide temporary immunity in a person exposed to an infectious disease who has not been actively immunized; this situation can arise when active immunization is unavailable (e.g., for respiratory syncytial virus) or when active immunization simply has not been implemented before exposure (e.g., for rabies). Passive immunization is used in the treatment of certain illnesses associated with toxins (e.g.
As noted above, the number of licensed vaccines and the strategies for their best use change constantly as new products, new indications, and new information become available. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regularly amends immunization recommendations to reflect the evolution of vaccines and vaccination policy in the United States.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 116. Immunization Principles and Vaccine Use
Principles of Immunization
The immune system, composed of a variety of cell types and soluble factors, is geared toward the recognition of and response to "foreign" substances termed antigens. Vaccines convey antigens from living or killed microorganisms (or protein or carbohydrate molecules derived from these antigens) to elicit immune responses that are generally protective but can occasionally backfire and cause harm to the recipient.
For common and highly communicable childhood diseases such as measles, the target population is the universe of susceptible individuals, and the time to immunize is as early in life as is feasible and effective.
Table 116-4 Standards for Immunization Practice
Child and Adolescent Immunization Practice
1. Immunization services are readily available.
2. Vaccinations are coordinated with other health care services and provided in a "medical home" when possible.
3. Barriers to vaccination are identified and minimized.
4. Patient's costs are minimized.
5. Health care professionals review the vaccination and health status of
patients at every encounter to determine which vaccines are indicated.
6. Health care professionals assess for and follow only medically accepted contraindications.
The Immune Response While many constituents of infectious microorganisms and their products (e.g., exotoxins) are or can be rendered immunogenic, only some stimulate protective immune responses that can prevent infection and/or clinical illness or (as in the case of rotavirus) can attenuate illness, providing protection against severe disease but not against infection or mild illness. The immune system is complex, and many factors—including antigen composition and presentation as well as host characteristics—are critical for stimulation of the desired immune responses (Chap. 308).
In this chapter you should be able to: Distinguish between innate and acquired immunity; name and describe four types of phagocytic cells; describe the inflammation response; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: antigens and antibodies; antigen and epitope; B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes; antibodies and B cell receptors; primary and secondary immune responses; humoral and cell-mediated response; active and passive immunity;...
(BQ) Part 1 book "The immune system" presents the following contents: Elements of the immune system and their roles in defense, innate immunity-the immediate response to infection, the induced response to infection, antibody structure and the generation of B cell diversity, antigen recognition by T lymphocytes,...
(BQ) Part 2 book "The immune system" presents the following contents: Preventing infection at mucosal surfaces, immunological memory and vaccination, coevolution of innate and adaptive immunity, failures of the body’s defenses, transplantation of tissues and organs, disruption of healthy tissue by the adaptive immune response, cancer and its interactions with the immune system.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Basic immunology functions and disorders of the immune system" presents the following contents: Introduction to the immune system, innate immunity, antigen capture and presentation to lymphocytes, antigen recognition in the adaptive immune system, T cell–mediated immunity, effector mechanisms of T cell–mediated immunity, humoral immune responses.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Basic immunology functions and disorders of the immune system" presents the following contents: Effector mechanisms of humoral immunity, immunological tolerance and autoimmunity, immune responses against tumors and transplants, hypersensitivity, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies.
(BQ) Part 1 book "How the immune system works" presents the following contents: An overview, the innate immune system, B cells and antibodies, the magic of antigen presentation, T cell activation, T cells at work.
(BQ) Part 2 book "How the immune system works" presents the following contents: Secondary lymphoid organs and lymphocyte trafficking, restraining the immune system, self tolerance and MHC restriction, immunological memory, the intestinal immune system, vaccines, the immune system gone wrong, cancer and the immune system, immunodeficiency,...
Part 2 book "Pediatric critical care medicine" presents the following contents: The hematologic system in critical illness and injury, oncologic disorders in the PICU, the immune system in critical illness and injury, secondary immunodeficiency syndromes.
To evaluate the immune activation and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of Cordyceps militaris
polysaccharides (CMP) in vivo, 90 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups. The
mice in the three experimental groups were given cyclophosphamide at 80 mg/kg/d via intraperitoneal
injection and 17.5, 35, or 70 mg/kg body weight CMP via gavage. The lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytic
index, and biochemical parameters were measured.
A need for a book on immunology which primarily focuses on the needs of medical
and clinical research students was recognized. This book is relatively short and
contains topics considered relevant to the understanding of human immune system
and its role in health and diseases. Immunology is the study of our protection from
foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our responses to them. These
invaders include viruses, bacteria, protozoa or even larger parasites.
What reduces pain, enhances athletic performance, job efficiency, improves the circulation, raises immune efficiency, promotes the healing of tissues, increases the functioning of the skin, enhances focus and emotional balance, and improves appearance? Right, massage! So what are you waiting for?
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) at the heart of heterologous prime-boost vaccines and regulation of CD8+ T cell immunity