(BQ) Part 1 book "Cellular and molecular immunology" presents the following contents: Properties and overview of immune responses, cells and tissues of the immune system, leukocyte circulation and migration into tissues, innate immunity, antibodies and antigens, immune receptors and signal transduction,...
(BQ) Part 2 book "Cellular and molecular immunology" presents the following contents: Differentiation and functions of CD8+ effector T cells; B cell activation and antibody production, immunologic tolerance and autoimmunity, effector mechanisms of humoral immunity, immunity to microbes, transplantation immunology,...
Further, Fich and Shivdasani (2006) find that firms with a majority of their outside
directors serving on three or more boards have lower profitability. Thus busy non-
executive directors may be over-committed and therefore unable to fulfil the role of
effective monitors. In addition, Vafeas (2003) reports that longer outside director
tenure adversely affects firm performance. Hwang and Kim (2009) find that the
existence of substantial social ties between outside directors and top management
diminishes the effectiveness of the monitoring role of non-executive directors. ...
Eight different isomeric forms of vitamin E (4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols) have been
found in nature. Tocotrienols (α, β, γ and δ) are identical in structure to tocopherols except
for the degree of saturation in their side chain. However, α-tocopherol is considered to be
the most active form of vitamin E in humans. It has been found that the concentrations of
vitamin E isomers in human feces are higher than in plasma – possibly due to its limited
absorption from the diet, suggesting that it could play a protective role against RONS
produced in the GI tract (Halliwell...
Although we are primarily interested in the housing consumption of the elderly, we did not limit
our analysis to the householders aged 62 and older. For comparison purposes, we looked at all
householders. We did this by segregating the householder population into seven age cohorts.
The number of age cohorts is large enough to let us capture changes in housing consumption
over individuals’ lifecycle, without being overly burdensome on the analysis. The cohort widths
have been defined such that they can mirror reasonable life bands.
The presence or lack of these five factors was the determinant of the role of religion in the
given conflict. Due to the nature of this methodology these are debateable findings. For
instance one leader may declare simply ‘May God bless us and watch over us’ whereas
another may declare that ‘God calls us, his chosen people, to annihilate our enemies’. Both
are employing a religious discourse yet there is clearly a difference in severity. Measuring this
The UK is an open economy and an active and successful international trader and
investor. But the UK’s reliance on debt-financed consumer and government spending,
and on the financial sector, has driven growing imbalances in the UK economy.
According to the OECD, by 2007 the UK had the largest structural budget deficit in the
G7 group of countries. The current account deficit was around 2¾% of GDP in 2007, a
figure that was offset by a 2¼% surplus on trade in financial services.
An unusually large number of people sickened by a disease in a certain place and
time is known as a ‘disease cluster’. Clusters of cancer, birth defects, and other
chronic illnesses have sometimes been linked to chemicals or other toxic pollutants
in local communities, although these links can be controversial. There is a need for
better documentation and investigation of disease clusters to identify and address
However, there are patients with two negative biopsies who continue with a high
suspicion of cancer, with a persistently elevated PSA or pre-malignant histology report such
as prostate intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or atypical microacinar proliferation. The
evidence suggests that cancers diagnosed with the third or fourth biopsy are those of low
grade and volume (Djavan, 2001). The key question is how often is it justified to re-biopsy
the patient that perhaps does not have a cancer that is life threatening.
In the treatment of bone pain, the second step on the WHO analgesic ladder is commonly unhelpful, with
inadequate pain relief or the development of undesirable/intolerable side-effects (Eisenberg, 2005). There is
currently no place for interventional treatment on the ladder and the earlier recommendations of a fourth step of
interventional management are not applied widely enough.
The main principles of pain management, including the use of a biopsychosocial approach, should be applied,
rather than simply following the WHO ladder.
In addition to research grants, contracts and cooperative agreements from the NIH (which now includes
all of the research elements of the (ADAMHA) Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health
Administration), the organizations listed below generally employ a system of external review and
funding that complies closely with the NIH standard.
But how “safe” is a savings account if you leave all of your
money there for a long time, and the interest it earns doesn’t
keep up with inflation? What if you save a dollar when it can
buy a loaf of bread. But years later when you withdraw that
dollar plus the interest you earned on it, it can only buy half
a loaf? This is why many people put some of their money in
savings, but look to investing so they can earn more over long
periods of time, say three years or longer.
When you “invest,” you...
As the debate on the future of pain medicine unfolds, stakeholders at all levels are taking note of the
exciting potential for an optimal system of pain care delivery. However, more delays in advancing the
cause of pain medicine will place the United States further behind other countries, such as Australia and
China, which have already recognized pain medicine as a medical specialty, and the European Union and
Canada, which are also considering such a development.
For the analysis of biological samples two blood samples were taken, one with 5 ml heparin
for the determination of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and pseudo cholinesterase (PChE) by
the technique of Michel and Aldrige (Vorhaus and Kark, 1953) and another of 5 ml without
anticoagulant for the analysis of OC pesticides in serum.
From HIV to influenza, the battle between infectious agents and the immune system is at the heart of disease. Knowledge of how and why parasites vary to escape recognition by the immune system is central to vaccine design, the control of epidemics, and our fundamental understanding of parasite ecology and evolution. As the first comprehensive synthesis of parasite variation at the molecular, population, and evolutionary levels, this book is essential reading for students and researchers throughout biology and biomedicine....
The book Renal Failure – The Facts consists of some facts about diagnosis,
etiopathogenis and treatment of acute and chronic renal failure. Acute, as well as
chronic renal failure is great medical problems and their treatment is a burden for the
budget of each government.
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously termed acute renal failure, is a frequent clinical
condition in critically ill patients especially, in intensive care units (ICU). Its incidence
varies from 1-7 % of all hospitalized patients to 30-50 % of patients in ICU....
An estimated 1.5 million deaths occur annually as a result of household air pollution from
SFU mainly for cooking as well as winter season heating. The total disease burden,
including morbidity, is estimated at 36 million DALYs (WHO 2007).
These deaths and
DALYs arise mainly from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children
and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, and to a lesser extent lung
cancer. There is also moderate evidence of increased risk of asthma, cataracts and
tuberculosis (Desai et al, 2004; Smith et al, 2004).
If the consumption of counterfeit goods is consistent with other forms of routine
consumption practices, it is likely that they are purchased in everyday environments
and situated within routine social contexts. Such a view is supported by the
questionnaire data. Rather than being integrated into a subcultural technical elite, the
most regular sites of purchase of counterfeit products were more mundane.
However, some focus group participants also found the use of electronic
music “distracting.” Several students who disliked the use of DJ Spooky’s music
accompanying Caligari noted being distracted by the modern drum loops and
electronic sounds, claiming that they didn’t “suit” the ﬁlm. Another student
anonymously described having seen the ﬁlm before, and feeling “far more
removed from the ﬁlm” because of the electronic music: “the experiment created
an unconscious focus on where the ﬁlm and the contemporary DJ track ‘synched’