Impact of water

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  • There is currently no independent authoritative statement on the nature and importance of differences in content of nutrients and other nutritionally relevant substances (nutrients and other substances) in organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs. This systematic review of the available published literature was designed to seek to determine the size and relevance to health of any differences in content of nutrients and other substances in organically and conventionally produced crops and livestock products.

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  • Many critical survival issues are related to uneven development, poverty, and population growth. They all place unprecedented pressures on the planet's lands, waters, forests, and other natural resources, not least in the developing countries. The downward spiral of poverty and environmental degradation is a waste of opportunities and of resources. In particular, it is a waste of human resources. These links between poverty, inequality, and environmental degradation formed a major theme in our analysis and recommendations.

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  • Water supply and sanitation are amongst the most basic requirements of life. For the past 50 to 150 years people living in Europe, America and a few capital cities elsewhere around the globe have come to take for granted the provision of a virtually limitless supply of clean, safe water and the seemingly effortless removal of all human wastes ‘out of sight and out of mind’.

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  • Waste water from industrial sites amounts to one third of total waste water discharged into To Lich river, and may have serious effects on the river water quality. With the total amount waste water of factories (Hanoi beer alcohol and beverage joint stock corporation (HABECO), Trang An JSC and Thuong Dinh industrial park) of 45,000 m3/day, these factories accounts for more than a half of total industrial waste water released into To Lich river. The analytic results of water samples taken from To Lich river show that the parameters of DO, COD, BOD5, TSS, NH4+, NO2- and coliform...

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  • A number of barriers stand in the way of mainstream adoption of personal manufacturing technologies that discourage widespread home, school and business use. A chief barrier is the “chicken and egg” paradox, where today’s current consumer and education markets for personal fabrication technologies is too small to attract the attention of companies, discouraging company investment in creating products and services, hence failing to attract more consumers.

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  • All combined or “synthetic” measures which try to measure environmental and economic changes in one indicator can be dismissed as over-simplistic. Beyond this, however, there is also the serious question of how meaningful it is to try to produce an estimate of national sustainability rather than assess the benefits and impacts of particular activities within a country.

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  • Growing awareness around the ecological impacts of water withdrawal and discharge increases both reputational and regulatory risks. Healthy aquatic ecosystems are an essential part of local communities and livelihoods, not only by serving as a source of clean drinking water, but also by providing cultural, social, aesthetic and economic value. As a result, significant water withdrawal or wastewater discharge, regardless of the extent of actual impacts on the neighboring communities or ecosystems, inevitably increase the risk of potential conflict with local communities.

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  • Mekong river, especially in Southern Vietnam, lowest part of the Mekong River Basin. While most of Vietnamese farmers in MD use water from the rivers and canals for their daily drinking, irrigation, domestic use, etc., effects of water environment to human life is more crucial. Vise visa, impacts of human activities to water environment are also considered to ensure the sustainable development of the MD.

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  • This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts, water consumption, produced allergens and toxins....

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  • How are pollutants transformed after their release into the environment? How are organisms exposed, and how do physiological alterations impact population dynamics and community structure? What direct or indirect impacts occur? As early as the 50s and 60s people living near industrial plants began to recognize undesirable changes in their environment - and to ask these very questions. The discipline of environmental toxicology addresses these questions.

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  • Contaminated bottom sediments and their negative impacts on water quality are a major problem in surface waters throughout the United States as well as in many other parts of the world. Even after elimination of the primary contaminant sources, these bottom sediments will be a main source of contaminants for many years to come. In order to determine environmentally-effective and cost-effective remedial actions, the transport and fate of these sediments and associated contaminants must be understood and quantified.

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  • Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the main pollinating agents for numerous plants and fruit trees and, hence, play a key role in agriculture and more generally in the maintenance of ecological biodiversity. Although these social insects are not the targets of all the different agrochemical treatments used in crop protection, they are widely affected by pesticides.

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  • Australia is founding its future on science and innovation. Its national science agency, CSIRO, is a powerhouse of ideas, technologies and skills. CSIRO initiated the National Research Flagships to address Australia’s major research challenges and opportunities. They apply large scale, long term, multidisciplinary science and aim for widespread adoption of solutions. The Flagship Collaboration Fund supports the best and brightest researchers to address these complex challenges through partnerships between CSIRO, universities, research agencies and industry....

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  • The study conducted by Hiller et al. (2011) to investigate the concentrations, distributions, and hazards of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCBs are used mainly as coolant and electronic industries (capacitors, transformers), paints, sealants for wood, cutting and lubricating fluids, plasticizers, and as dielectric fluids. Therefore, at the former site of PCB manufacturing area in Slovakia, high concentrations of PCBs are detected in soils, sediments, humans, and wildlife (Kocan et al., 2001; Petrik et al., 2001; Hiller et al., 2011)....

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  • In its report to the G7 titled Report of the Financial Stability Forum on Enhancing Market and Institutional Resilience, 1 the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) requested the Joint Forum to conduct a stocktaking of the uses of external credit ratings by its member authorities in the banking, securities and insurance sectors. The request also suggested that authorities review whether their regulations and/or supervisory policies unintentionally give credit ratings an official seal of approval that discourages investors from performing their own due diligence.

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  • In this section we look at data concerning 10-year government bond yields. Although our main interest is the default risk, this presents only one channel through which fiscal policies can affect long-term yields. There are other channels operating through monetary-fiscal interaction, which should be reflected in the evolution of yields. Therefore we start our descriptive analysis in this section by looking at yields, forward rates and inflation expectations at a weekly frequency. Then we move to an analysis of interest rate swap spreads, at a weekly and daily frequency.

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  • The accounting treatment of investments in property, plant and equipment and intangible assets entails the use of estimates to determine the useful life for depreciation and amortization purposes and to assess fair value at their acquisition dates for assets acquired in business combinations. Determining useful life requires making estimates in connection with future technological developments and alternative uses for assets.

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  • It is widely accepted that irrigation allows for the increase and stability in agrarian yields, being a necessary tool to support food supplies and necessities for certain raw materials in the world. However, irrigated agriculture is also considered the most significant fresh water consumer and one of the main causes of pollution, degradation and depletion of natural resources. These impacts are primarily related to changes in the water cycle, salinization of agricultural soils, and salinization and pollution of water resources due to the use of agrochemicals....

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  • These related changes have locked the global economy and global ecology together in new ways. We have in the past been concerned about the impacts of economic growth upon the environment. We are now forced to concern ourselves with the impacts of ecological stress - degradation of soils, water regimes, atmosphere, and forests upon our economic prospects. We have in the more recent past been forced to face up to a sharp increase in economic interdependence among nations. We are now forced to accustom ourselves to an accelerating ecological interdependence among nations.

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  • Information -- or more precisely, better information -- can be viewed much like any other commodity in that it is costly to acquire and provides benefits to the user. The goal is to identify the kinds of situations in which improvements in data or methods are likely to yield the greatest net benefit. From an economic standpoint, information itself has little intrinsic value. Instead, information acquires value when it facilitates optimizing behavior. That is, better information can lead to changes in actions, changes that themselves create value.

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