Implementations of stack

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  • Contiguous Stack Applications of Stack .Linear List Concepts LIFO (Stack) .Stack ADT DEFINITION: A Stack of elements of type T is a finite sequence of elements of T, in which all insertions and deletions are restricted to one end, called the top. Stack is a Last In - First Out (LIFO) data structure. Basic operations: • Construct a stack, leaving it empty. • Push an element. • Pop an element. • Top an element.

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  • Binary Heap. Min-heap. Max-heap. Efficient implementation of heap ADT: use of array Basic heap algorithms: ReheapUp, ReheapDown, Insert Heap, Delete Heap, Built Heap d-heaps Heap Applications: Select Algorithm Priority Queues Heap sort Advanced implementations of heaps: use of pointers Leftist heap Skew heap Binomial queues

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  • Reversing data items Ex.: Reverse a list. Convert Decimal to Binary. Brackets Parse. Infix to Postfix Transformation. Evaluate a Postfix Expression. Parsing Ex.: Ex.: Postponement of processing data items Backtracking Ex.: Goal Seeking Problem. Knight’s Tour. Exiting a Maze. Eight Queens Problem. .Reverse a list PROBLEM: Read n numbers, print the list in reverse order. Algorithm ReverseList Pre User supplies numbers. Post The numbers are printed in reverse order. Uses Stack ADT. 1. loop (stack is not full and there is more number) 1. read a number 2.

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  • Data structures and Algorithms: Stacks & Queues includes The Stack ADT (Applications of Stacks, Array-based implementation, List-based stack, Applications); The Queue ADT(implementation with a circular array, List-based queue, Round Robin schedulers).

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  • We normally use the decimal (denary). system, also called base 10. l There are 10 different symbols .(digits). l 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 l To count higher than nine we re-use the symbols by putting them in columns. l The value of aComputers use the binary system, also called base 2 l There are two different symbols (digits) l 0, 1 l To count higher than one we re-use the symbols by putting them in columns l The value of a symbol depends on its position symbol depends on its position....

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  • AVL Tree is: • A Binary Search Tree, • in which the heights of the left and right subtrees of the root differ by at most 1, and • the left and right subtrees are again AVL trees. The name comes from the discoverers of this method, G.M.Adel'son-Vel'skii and E.M.Landis. The method dates from 1962. .Balance factor Balance factor: • left_higher: HL = HR + 1 • equal_height: • right_higher:

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  • A Graph G consists of a set V, whose members are called the vertices of G, together with a set E of pairs of distinct vertices from V. • The pairs in E are called the edges of G. • If the pairs are unordered, G is called an undirected graph or a graph. Otherwise, G is called a directed graph or a digraph. • Two vertices in an undirected graph are called adjacent if there is an edge from the first to the second.

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  • Hidden malicious circuits provide an attacker with a stealthy attack vector. As they occupy a layer below the entire software stack, malicious circuits can bypass tra- ditional defensive techniques. Yet current work on trojan circuits considers only simple attacks against the hard- ware itself, and straightforward defenses. More complex designs that attack the software are unexplored, as are the countermeasures an attacker may take to bypass pro- posed defenses. We present the design and implementation of Illinois Malicious Processors (IMPs).

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  • .Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science Part 2. Stack Suppose that the following algorithms are implemented: - PushStack (ref s , val n ): push the value n to the stack s - PopStack(ref s , ref x ): remove the top element of the stack s and assign the data of that top element to x - EmptyStack(val s ): check whether the stack s is empty Required Questions Question 3. Imagine we have two empty stacks of integers, s1 and s2. Draw a picture of each stack after the following operations: 1: 2: 3: 4:...

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  • Recent  interest  in security was fueled by the crime  committed  by  Kevin  Mitnick.  Kevin  Mitnick  committed  the  largest  computer‐related  crime  in  U.S.  history  [3].  The  losses  were  eighty  million  dollars in U.S. intellectual property and source code  from  a  variety  of  companies  [3].  Since  then,  information security came into the spotlight.    Public  networks  are  being  relied  upon  to  deliver  financial  and  personal  information.

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  • Sorting Divice-andConquer •Natural Merge •Balanced Merge •Polyphase Merge •Insertion •Shell •Selection •Heap •Bubble •Quick •Quick •Merge

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  • Lexicographic Search Trees: Tries Multiway Trees B-Tree, B*-Tree, B+-Tree Red-Black Trees (BST and B-Tree) 2-d Tree, k-d Tree 1 .Basic Concepts 2 .Basic Concepts 3 .Trees

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  • There  exists  a  “communication  gap”  between  the  developers  of  security  technology  and  developers  of  networks.  Network  design  is  a  well‐developed  process  that  is  based  on  the  Open  Systems  Interface  (OSI) model.  The  OSI model  has  several  advantages  when  designing  networks.  It  offers  modularity,  flexibility,  ease‐of‐use,  and  standardization  of  protocols.

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  • Introduction to java programming: Chapter 20 - Lists, Stacks, Queues, Trees, and Heap's Objectives is to describe what a data structure is; explain the limitations of arrays; implement a dynamic list using an array; implement a dynamic list using a linked structure.

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  • An Abstract Stack (Stack ADT) is an abstract data type which emphasizes specific operations: Uses a explicit linear ordering, insertions and removals are performed individually, there are no restrictions on objects inserted into (pushed onto) the queue that object is designated the back of the queue,... This topic discusses the concept of a stack: Description of an Abstract Stack, list applications, implementation, example applications, standard template library.

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  • Because it is a pure object-oriented programming language, all Java programs contain one or more class (or ADT) deÞnitions. Java deÞnes many built-in classes and hundreds of methods. The purpose of this laboratory is for you to review how you can implement an abstract data type (ADT) of your own design while utilizing some of the built-in ADTs already implemented in Java. We use a monthly logbook as our example ADT. A monthly logbook consists of a set of entries, one for each day of the month.

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  • Multipath TCP is a major extension to TCP that allows improving the resource usage in the current Internet by transmitting data over several TCP subflows, while still showing one single regular TCP socket to the application. This document describes our experience in writing a MultiPath TCP implementation in the Linux kernel and discusses implementation guidelines that could be useful for other developers who are planning to add MultiPath TCP to their networking stack. Status of this Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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  • Chapter 14 - Functions. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Functions in C, a function with a parameter, example: area of a ring, implementing functions in C, run-time stack, getting it all to work, tying it all together, problem solving using functions,...

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  • A wide range of techniques have been identified and implemented, basically falling into three categories: Dual-stack techniques, to allow IPv4 and IPv6 to co-exist in the same devices and networks. Tunneling techniques, to avoid dependencies when upgrading hosts, routers, or regions. Translation techniques, to allow IPv6-only devices to communicate with IPv4-only devices. Expect all of these to be used, in combination

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  • Interconnects networks at the internetwork layer level and routes packets between them. The router must understand the addressing structure associated with the networking protocols it supports and take decisions on whether, or how, to forward packets. Routers are able to select the best transmission paths and optimal packet sizes. The basic routing function is implemented in the IP layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack, so any host or workstation running TCP/IP over more than one interface could, in theory and also with most of today's TCP/IP implementations, forward IP datagrams.

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