Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries
The data items to be collected by a registry are dictated by the purpose for
which the registry has been established, by the method of data collection
used and by the resources available to the registry. However, the emphasis
should be on the quality of the data collected rather than on the quantity. It is
advisable that registries in developing countries should start by attempting
to collect only information on the basic items listed in .
A unique registration number (cancer registry number) is assigned by the
registry to each patient.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets
The study on which this book reports was jointly commissioned by the
World Bank and the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization
(ARIPO) in 2005 to assess the extent to which member countries of
ARIPO have utilized the flexibilities of the Trade-Related Aspects of
Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement to improve access to
The study benefited from interviews with a number of policy makers,
manufacturers, and national drug regulatory authorities in Ghana, Kenya,
Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.
The use of hospital admission rates for ambulatory care
sensitive conditions (ACSCs) has become an established
tool for analyzing access to care [1,2]. ACSCs are conditions
for which good outpatient care can potentially prevent
the need for hospitalization. High rates of hospital
admissions for ACSCs may provide evidence of problems
with patient access to primary healthcare, inadequate
skills and resources, or a mismatch in services.
If something close to the higher-end trajectory
occurs, fuel economy improvement will be even
more important to contain the rise in global CO2
emissions. And other complementary measures,
such as careful land-use planning, travel demand
management, development of high quality transit
systems where these provide more efficient trans-
port services than private cars, and strong shifts
to low-carbon fuels, will be needed to help move
toward outright reductions in CO2 and reach lev-
els well below those of 2005.
Despite some regional variation, overall there was intensive recruitment of new nursing
graduates in Canada until 2010 when the economic downturn began to result in position
cutbacks. Reports across the country indicated that new graduates were experiencing difficulty
in finding employment. This change in demand is being attributed to economic factors and to
provincial/territorial government policies aimed at increasing the use of practical nurses in
positions previously held by registered nurses.
n Due to low availability of medicines in the public sector, patients are often forced to
purchase medicines in the private sector. In this sector, patient prices for lowest-priced
generic products ranged from 2.6 times IRPs in South-East Asia to 9.5 times IRPs in
the Americas. For originator brand products, private sector prices were at least 10
times higher than international reference prices in all WHO regions.
A number of countries have used the results of recent surveys of medicine prices and
availability to inform and guide policy action to improve access to medicines. Examples
China: The Chinese Government intends to limit the price of branded generics to not
much higher than unbranded generics, simplify the public sector medicine supply system,
establish a national pooled tendering procurement system and abolish mark-ups in the
Within this setting of a dynamic, private marketing system, the role of the Federal Government is
to help keep the marketing of agricultural commodities flowing in an orderly and efficient
manner, to promote effective distribution, to eliminate speculation and waste, and to stabilize the
marketing of agricultural commodities. A brief summary of current programs and activities is
given below. However, it must be realized that as the marketing system continues to evolve,
there will be corresponding changes in the programs, services or activities of the Federal
The Hollywood Renaissance embraced aspects of
‘art’ cinema to some extent, but it proved short-lived, the product of
a period of transition that soon passed in the later 1970s, with both
the consolidation of a blockbuster-centred regime in Hollywood and
a political turn to the right in American culture. Space for edgier,
more questioning or ‘difﬁcult’ ﬁlmmaking was generally reduced in
Hollywood from the end of the decade.
The effect of movies on the appearance of children as witnesses in German
courts is particularly noticeable. Children, juveniles, and adults were asked by
Petra Wolf what they knew about courts.
The source of information they
most often mentioned was movies, especially American crime movies and
courtroom dramas. A group of psychologists from Kiel who published a book
for the preparation of children as witnesses found out that, even after seeing
pictures of a German courtroom, children still believed that the judge would
have a gavel or at least wear a wig.
As seen in Table 5, the average WHP caseload of non-PPFA facilities in the five areas
ranges from 21 per provider in Hidalgo County to 112 in Dallas. If Planned Parenthood affiliates
were excluded from WHP, the remaining non-PPFA clinics would have to absorb a massive
increase in WHP patients in order to maintain the overall 2011 caseload level. Non-PPFA clinics
in Bexar and Dallas Counties would have to double their capacity. Lubbock County providers
would need to expand by 250% if the Planned Parenthood affiliate was excluded.
Sensor networks typically consist of tens to hundreds of
small, battery-powered, radio-equipped nodes. These
nodes usually have a small, embedded microprocessor,
running at a few Mhz, with a small quantity of RAM and a
larger Flash memory. The Berkeley mica2 Mote is a popu-
lar sensor network hardware platform designed at UC
Berkeley and sold commercially by Crossbow Corporation.
It has a 7 Mhz processor, a 38.6Kbps radio with ~100 foot
range, 4KB of RAM and 512KB flash, runs on AA batter-
ies and uses ~15 mA in active power consumption and ~10
µA when asleep.
Rehydration consists not only of the ingestion of water but also of its absorption and
distribution throughout the body tissues. Because of large buffering capacity of their
alimentary tract, ruminants are able to drink large quantities of water in a very short time
after a period of privation. Animals without this capacity are rarely able to take all their
requirements in one short session, mainly due to the problems associated with
haemolysis. Some non-ruminants are, however, capable of rapid drinking, including dogs
Our healthcare practitioners will develop a deep
appreciation for the healing dynamic of the physician-
patient relationship, in which compassionate care is
manifested by attentive listening, empathy, respect and
commitment. They will provide highly competent, safe
and patient-centered care while demonstrating the
highest level of professionalism and sensitivity to
the diverse personal and cultural contexts in which
medical care is delivered.
The half-life of UPA is 32.4 hours, which means that most of the drug is eliminated by 1 week
and the interaction with hormonal contraception is likely to be clinically insignificant by this
time. If a hormonal method is quick started the CEU advises use of additional contraceptive
precautions for 1 week after taking UPA plus the time required for contraceptive efficacy to
be established (see Summary on page iv).
Another important benefit is associated with the creation of multidimensional
network effects due to the new possibilities of product creation in the clouds, that
is between companies exploiting in different ways the potentialities of cloud com-
puting through the same platform or different ones. This is related to another new
possibility, the rapid adoption of changes: it is not uncommon, that applications in
the clouds are modified on a daily base (to accommodate new requirements, or en-
able new economic venues), which is impossible with on-premise solutions.
This paper presents the design and implementation of
DOT, a flexible architecture for data transfer. This architecture
separates content negotiation from the data transfer
itself. Applications determine what data they need to send
and then use a new transfer service to send it. This transfer
service acts as a common interface between applications
and the lower-level network layers, facilitating innovation
both above and below. The transfer service frees developers
from re-inventing transfer mechanisms in each new
On September 7th
, Italy signed a bilateral agreement to promote projects in China ahead
of the World Expo Shanghai 2010. The agreement is the latest of seven bilateral
environmental accords signed by Italy so far this year, and it continues a three-year
history of environmental cooperation between Italy and China. The agreement was
signed by Corrado Clini, director general of Italy's Environment Ministry, and Xu Zuxin,
the head of the Shanghai Environmental Protection Agency.