The advancement of technologies was marvelous during the past half century; new analytical instruments have been being invented and improved. About 30 years ago, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was being used most widely for detection and identification of drugs and poisons. Around that time, the use of GC/MS started in the field of medicine. Therefore, an ideal procedure for analysis of drugs and poisons was considered to be the screening by TLC, followed by the final identification and quantitation by GC/MS.
Amphetamines are a group of drugs stimulating the central nervous system; they act on the cerebral cortex to enhance psychic activities, resulting in the removal of general fatigue and drowsiness and thus in the transient improvement of working efficiency. Their abuse causes dependence, hallucination, delusion and changes in personality. Because of such harmfulness of the drugs, their use and possession are prohibited by the Stimulant Drugs Control Law in Japan .
Alcohol usually means ethanol/ethyl alcohol. It has a long history for the human being, and gives euphoric effects and sometimes improves the human relationship. In contrast, there are many cases of violence, injuries, homicides and traffic accidents with drinking; close relation can be observed between ethanol and crimes/accidents. When forensic autopsies are performed, ethanol concentrations in blood and urine are routinely measured. GC analysis of ethanol using the conventional packed columns is described in many of literature [1, 2].
Japanese people are very fond of eating fugu (puffer) fishes (especially Takifugu rubripes) as a feast especially in the winter season. However, the fish contains highly poisonous toxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) especially in its liver and ovary. Therefore, the number of fugu (puffer) fish poisoning incidents in Japan were 554, in which 912 people were poisoned during 20 years in 1980–1999; among the 912 people, 106 subjects were fatal (mortality rate, 11.6 %) ( Table 3.1)a.
Switzerland's policy for improving air quality "must be pursued with determination," the
agency added. "In particular, this means using more advanced technologies and
introducing stricter norms for nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulates."
The agency said one reason for the smaller than anticipated decrease in polluting
emissions is the projected increase in truck traffic despite the Swiss government's efforts
to encourage trucks crossing through Switzerland to be put on rail cars through the use
of road tolls and quotas on truck traffic.
Today’s customer-focused, market-driven company cannot afford to miss the fact that many customers prefer environmentally friendly products given a similar cost. Again, it is easy to see that creating and sustaining competitive advantage is still a matter of “better, cheaper, faster.” The Internet has made customers more informed about every aspect of a product, including its potential environmental harms. Companies that can meet these environmental needs will be the winners.
The potential benefits are large and greatly exceed the expected costs of improved fuel economy. Cutting
global average automotive fuel consumption (L/100 km) by 50% (i.e. doubling MPG) would reduce emis-
sions of CO2 by over 1 gigatonne (Gt) a year by 2025 and over 2 gigatonnes (Gt) by 2050, and result in
savings in annual oil import bills alone worth over USD 300 billion in 2025 and 600 billion in 2050 (based on
an oil price of USD 100/bbl). The Initiative proposes several steps and actions to work towards the 50:50
overall goal and each step will achieve some of...
This report, one of a series of adoption case studies coordinated by the Impacts Assessment and Evaluation Group (IAEG) of
the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), examines the adoption by Ghanaian maize farmers
of improved production technologies developed through the Ghana Grains Development Project (GGDP).
Women constitute a special group within prisons because of their sex. Although the
characteristics and corresponding needs of women prisoners can vary considerably between
countries, several factors are common to most. These include many mental disorders, a high
level of drug or alcohol dependence, many women experiencing sexual and physical abuse and
violence before or in prison, the neglect of gender-specific health care needs and additional
issues related to the women’s responsibility for children and families.
Purpose: Based on theoretical studies of state management on the prevention of drugs, analysis and assessment of the state of the state management on the prevention of drugs in Vietnam, fellows establish and implement the scientific foundation to propose practical solutions to improve system ef ciency of state management on the prevention of drugs in Vietnam during the integration period.
This section lays out a two-part plan to solve the
retirement crisis by making some bold changes to the
private retirement system and Social Security. The first
proposal would rebuild the private pension system by
providing universal access to Universal, Secure, and
Adaptable (“USA”) Retirement Funds, a new type of private
pension plan that would give people the opportunity to
earn a secure benefit and would be easy for employers to
This revised guidance comes at a time of modernisation and change.
New NHS structures such as Primary Care Organisations and Strategic
Health Authorities (Regional Offices and Local Health Boards in
Wales) mean many of those concerned in these bodies will need to
learn afresh what needs to be done and why. They need to
appreciate how their organisation can contribute effectively to
improving outcomes, including acting together for more centralised
services such as radiotherapy.
An increasing range of cancer policies is now available, together with
The recent literature on health economics has shown a keen interest in the mea-
surement of health inequality and in its determinants. One of the more persistent
and salient ﬁndings1
is the existence of a “health-income gradient”, in the sense
that health tends to be associated positively with incomes. A seemingly natural
corollary is that health policy might usefully take place through income redistri-
bution and a general improvement in living standards.
Countries and donors have agreed a set of principles
around aid effectiveness to address these challenges.
Countries will work to develop national health plans and
donors will align their aid accordingly. They will also
harmonize their budgets, providing separate health
budget lines, with all public spending and donor financing
included. Already, countries and donors are using the
International Health Partnership (IHP+) to improve and
harmonize their activities, reduce fragmentation and
ensure that more funding flows rapidly to those who need it.
Most of the people I meet in my work perceive themselves as not capable of
much. Some don’t even particularly like themselves. I know how they feel. As a
young man I felt the same, and it nearly destroyed me before I acquired the
confidence to become a teacher, therapist and organiser of personal development
and complementary therapy courses.
Scientists who dedicate their research activity to biomaterials pass through the typical
dichotomy that often characterizes the basic research.
On one side is the wish of exploring new frontiers of chemistry, physics, biology,
medicine, pharmaceutics and all other disciplines to which biomaterials can be
applied. Constantly improving of scientific knowledge would feed the freedom of
attempting new strategies for producing materials with always tailored and improved
Over 98 per cent of sprayed
insecticides and 95 per cent of herbicides reach a destination other than their target
species, including non-target species, air, water and soil. Pesticide drift occurs when
pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas,
potentially contaminating them. Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution and
some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants and contribute to soil contamination.
Detection of pesticide molecules in the food items from plant and animal origin
become imperative for safe consumption of food.
The eleventh edition of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology is a new book in two important ways. First, the addition of new Associate
Editors to the editorial group has increased currency, depth, and breadth of coverage; second, conversion to fullcolor style has
increased the clarity of presentation and total information content. At the same time, the overall organization has been improved
and the educational content of previous editions has been expanded.
It has been over eight years since the first edition of the Handbook of Pharmaceutical
Granulation Technology was published. The enthusiastic reception afforded by the
scientific community was heartwarming.
The basic science of granulation has not changed much over the last few years;
however, a better understanding of the theory of granulation and the proliferation of
different dosage forms has.
From 1999–2003, FRONTIERS implemented a Global Agenda program of operations research
(OR) projects to address the reproductive health (RH) needs of adolescents in four countries—
Bangladesh, Kenya, Mexico, and Senegal. The project was implemented in urban areas of Saint-
Louis and Louga, in northwestern Senegal, and was called Improving the Reproductive Health of
Youth in Senegal.