Energy is important for the existence and development of humankind and is a key issue
in international politics, the economy, military preparedness, and diplomacy. To reduce
the impact of conventional energy sources on the environment, much attention should be
paid to the development of new energy and renewable energy resources. Solar energy,
which is environment friendly, is renewable and can serve as a sustainable energy source.
Hence, it will certainly become an important part of the future energy structure with the
increasingly drying up of the terrestrial fossil fuel.
Thermal power plants are one of the most important process industries for engineering professionals. Over the past decades, the power sector is facing a number of critical issues; however, the most fundamental challenge is meeting the growing power demand in sustainable and efficient ways. Practicing power plant engineers not only look after operation and maintenance of the plant, but, also look after range of activities including research and development, starting from power generation to environmental aspects of power plants.
Soil fertility describes soil nutrient status and the factors controlling the supply of
nutrients to plants. Continued efforts to improve soil fertility are required to support
the world's growing demand for food, fiber, and renewable fuels. Important ecological
services provided by soils, such as biodiversity, buffering capacity, and nutrient
recycling benefit from the amendments applied to sustain soil fertility. Those
amendments need to be applied in a manner that is both economical and practical for
the producer to achieve agronomic objectives that are environmentally sound.
Scientists who dedicate their research activity to biomaterials pass through the typical
dichotomy that often characterizes the basic researc. On one side is the wish of
exploring new frontiers of chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, pharmaceutics and
all other disciplines to which biomaterials can be applied. The constantly improving
scientific knowledge would feed the freedom of attempting new strategies for
producing materials with always tailored and improved characteristics.
Biofuels such as bioethanol are becoming a viable alternative
to fossil fuels. Utilizing agricultural biomass for the production
of biofuel has drawn much interest in many science and
engineering disciplines. As one of the major crops, maize
offers promise in this regard. Compared to other crops with
biofuel potential, maize can provide both starch (seed) and
cellulosic (stover) material for bioethanol production.
The country case studies make clear that international partners share
some of the blame, particularly because they too often fail to coordinate
programs to help promote more integrated, comprehensive health care
for women. However, it is equally clear that many of the obstacles are
wholly local in nature: National governments and policymakers are
often unable or unwilling to initiate or sustain health care programs and
reforms that would improve women’s access to services and, by extension,
reduce rates of vertical transmission.
During the last two decades, increase in electricity demand and environmental
concern resulted in fast growth of power production from renewable sources. Wind
power is one of the most efficient alternatives. Due to rapid development of wind
turbine technology and increasing size of wind farms, wind power plays a significant
part in the power production in some countries.
For the last nineteen years, I have had the great pleasure and
privilege of teaching and learning about healing at the Rice
Diet Program in Durham, North Carolina. Participants here, fondly
nicknamed Ricers, have the opportunity to experience the fastest,
safest, and most effective way to lose weight and improve every
other modifi able risk factor of heart disease and, in fact, most
This report uses a new methodology for profiling sectors, building a picture of the LCEGS sector from
the bottom up, rather than from the top down as is traditionally the case.
Using a full sector analysis model (see Box 2.
The North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University, in collaboration with the National
Renewable Energy Laboratory, examined 10 state financial-incentive programs in six states
using a case-study approach in order to clarify the key factors—both internal and external to
the program—that influence their effectiveness at stimulating deployment of renewable
energy technologies. While existing information resources such as the National Database of
State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE, www.dsireusa.
Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S.
,,,and the Army Materiel Command (AMC) have been examining which systems (both type and portion of the fleet) should be recapitalized and defining what that renewal process should involve (the extent of work for each “overhaul”). Accordingly, OASA(ALT) is sponsoring RAND Arroyo Center research on how equipment age affects readiness and resource requirements, to aid analyses in support of RECAP decisions.
In 2008, the price of green power for residential customers in utility programs ranged from
-1.0¢/kWh (a savings compared to standard service) to 8.8¢/kWh above standard electricity
rates, with an average premium of 1.8¢/kWh and median of 1.5¢/kWh. These premiums have
been adjusted to account for any fuel-cost exemptions granted to green power program
In 2008, the utility programs with the lowest premiums for energy derived from
new renewable sources had premiums ranging from -1.0¢/kWh (a savings) to 0.9¢/kWh. On
average, consumers spend about $5.
Earlier, Lau and Yotopolous (1971) estimated an equation for the profit function in
differences in economic efficiency between large and small farms in India and found
that small farms attained a higher level of economic efficiency. Sahidu (1974) adopted
the Lau–Yotopolous model to sample of Indian wheat farms and came out with a contrary
conclusion – that large and small farms exhibited equal economic efficiency in both the
technical and price senses.
The National Settlement Service allows participants in private-sector
clearing arrangements to do multilateral funds settlements on a net basis
using balances in their Federal Reserve accounts. The service provides
an automated mechanism for submitting settlement information to the
Reserve Banks. It improves operational eff iciency and controls for this
process and reduces settlement risk to participants by granting settlement
f inality for movements of funds on settlement day.
Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable
development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not
sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for
rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas, and small hydro power have
expanded through rural entrepreneurship, government programs, and donor assistance,
serving millions of households. Applications in agriculture, small industry, and social
services are emerging. Public programs resulted in 220 million improved biomass cook
This paper focuses primarily on application considerations for
topping cogeneration cycles.
For comparative purposes Figure 1 illustrates energy utilization
effectiveness (the percent of total energy output from the cycle
which is useful heat and/or power) for a typical non-reheat coal-
fired utility/industrial plant configuration (three-stage feed water
heating with steam conditions of 1450 psig / 950°F [101 bar /
510°C] steam conditions vs. a cogeneration facility utilizing the
same fired boiler but with a non-condensing steam turbine
generator that supplies steam to process.
A key barrier to the use of plant-derived materials is the high cost of developing
the market, even when unique new products have been created. As in many
emerging product markets, research in new products begins in small companies
that are under-capitalized and lack the resources needed to go beyond the
laboratory scale. The success rate for commercialization is low and promising
products often languish through lack of volume generation.
At objective level, VNRC has worked closely with the ministry of health and provincial health authorities on
communication efforts that aim at reducing further spread, infection, death and other impacts of HFMD. The
national society has engaged in situation updates, coordination, planning and responses to HFMD at
national and provincial level through using their role as a member in the steering committee for epidemic and
pandemic prevention and control.
Considered a “toy” language by serious web developers for most of its lifetime, Java-
Script has regained its prestige in the past few years as a result of the renewed
interest in Rich Internet Applications and Ajax technologies. The language has
been forced to grow up quickly as client-side developers have tossed aside cut-andpaste
difficult cross-browser problems once and for all and provide new and improved
paradigms for web development....