In eukaryotes. in this study

Xem 1-20 trên 22 kết quả In eukaryotes. in this study
  • DNA methylation affects important developmental processes in both plants and animals. The process of methylation of cytosines at C-5 is catalysed by DNA methyltransferases (MTases), which are highly conserved, both struc-turally and functionally, in eukaryotes. In this study, we identified and characterized cytosine DNA MTase genes that are activated with the onset of reproductive development in rice.

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  • We choose the kinesins to illustrate similarities and differences between protein family databases. Kinesin and its relatives are motor proteins that utilize ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules in eukaryotic cells. The motor portion of a kinesin is structurally very similar to that of the myosin motor, which moves along actin filaments, although no sequence similarity is evident between them. This is an example of likely divergence from an ancestral fold that is beyond current sequence- based comparison methods to detect.

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  • Non coding endogenous RNAs were first discovered in the last decade of the previous century. These new discoveries changed our views of the transcriptome landscape of plant genomes and paradigms of the regulation of gene expression. With the beginning of this century, we have witnessed an explosion of studies on small regulatory RNAs that has yielded a basic understanding of the many types of small RNAs in diverse eukaryotic species and how they are functioning as RNA–protein complexes along the RNA silencing pathways.

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  • Cell navigation is the process whereby cells or cytoplasmic extensions are guided from one point to another in multicellular organisms or, in the case of unicellular eukaryotic organisms, in the environment. Recent work has demonstrated that membrane trafficking plays an important role in this process.

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  • Population geneticists study the genetic composition and variability of natural populations as well as the theories that explain this variability in terms of natural selection, mutation, recombination, genetic drift and gene flow. Population genetics was first developed among eukaryotes in an attempt to reconcile Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection and Mendelian genetics. When Darwin postulated that natural selection is the main force of evolutionary change, a great controversy was created.

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  • Cells of the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae, have for several decades now been considered as the prototypic eukaryotic cells, ideally suited to study and uncover many of the basic phenomena of eukaryotic life.

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  • Peroxisomes are cell organelles that are present in almost all eukaryotic cells and involved in a large range of metabolic pathways. The organelles are highly dynamic in nature: their number and enzyme content is highly variable and continuously adapts to prevailing environmental conditions. This review summarizes recent relevant developments in research on pro-cesses that are involved in the regulation of peroxisome abundance and maintenance.

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  • Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is an enzyme that removes methyl groups from mono- and dimethylated Lys4 of histone H3, a post-transla-tional modification associated with gene activation. Human LSD1 was the first histone demethylase to be discovered and this enzymatic activity is conserved among eukaryotes.

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  • Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) of DNA are formed spontane-ously by the reaction of carbonyl compounds such as sugars, methylglyoxal or dihydroxyacetonein vitro andin vivo. Little is known, however, about the biological consequences of DNA AGEs. In this study, a method was developed to determine the parameters that promote DNA glycation in cultured cells.

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  • Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the spectral and functional properties of a prokaryotic xanthine dehydrogenase fromComamonas acidovoransshow some similarities to those of the well-characterized eukaryotic enzymes isolated from bovine milk and from chicken liver [Xiang, Q. & Edmondson, D.E. (1996) Biochemistry35, 5441–5450]. Therefore, this system was chosen to study the factors involved in the expression of functional recombinant enzyme in Escherichia colito provide insights into the assembly of the functional Mo-pyranopterin center....

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  • The 26S proteasome, a protein complex consisting of a 20S proteasome and a pair of 19S regulatory particles (RP), is involved in ATP-dependent proteolysis in eukaryotes. In yeast, theRP contains six different ATPase subunits and, at least, 11 non-ATPase subunits. In this study, we identi®ed the rice homologs of yeast RP subunit genes from the rice expressed sequence tag (EST) library.

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  • Worldwide, one in five women has a child by the age of 18. In the poorest regions of the world, this rises to over one in three women. Adolescent pregnancies are more likely to occur among poor, less educated and rural populations. WHO’s recommendations for reducing early pregnancy are informed by two graded systematic reviews, three ungraded studies, as well as the conclusions of an expert panel.

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  • This book is an introduction to the exciting new field of ecological genomics, for use in MSc courses and by those beginning their PhD studies. When we became involved in a national research programme on ecological genomics, or ecogenomics as it became known, we realized that information on this newly emerging subject needed to be brought together. In order to start up a research programme in such a new discipline, not only the students, but also we as teachers, had to get to grips with the subject.

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  • In eukaryotes, CpG methylation is an epigenetic DNA modification that is important for heterochromatin formation. Centromere protein B (CENP-B) specifically binds to the centromeric 17 base-pair CENP-B box DNA, which contains two CpG dinucleotides. In this study, we tested complex formation by the DNA-binding domain of CENP-B with methylated and unmethylated CENP-B box DNAs, and found that CENP-B preferentially binds to the unmethylated CENP-B box DNA.

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  • Eukaryotic genomes are composed of isochores, i.e. long sequences relat-ively homogeneous in GC content. In this paper, the isochore structure of Arabidopsis thalianagenome has been studied using a windowless technique based on theZcurve method and intuitive curves are drawn for all the five chromosomes. Using these curves, we can calculate the GC content at any resolution, even at the base level.

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  • Chapter 1 - Introduction: Themes in the study of life. In this chapter, you should now be able to: Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences; distinguish among the three domains of life, and the eukaryotic kingdoms; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: discovery science and hypothesis-based science, quantitative and qualitative data, inductive and deductive reasoning, science and technology.

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  • The purpose of this review is to discuss the effect of natural antioxidant compounds as modulators of the 20Sproteasome, a multi-enzymatic multi-catalytic complex present in the cytoplasm and nucleus of eukaryotic cells and involved in several cellular activities such as cell-cycle progression, pro-liferation and the degradation of oxidized and damaged proteins.

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  • Searching the genome sequence ofStreptococcus pneumoniaerevealed the presence of a single Ser⁄Thr protein kinase genestkP linked to protein phosphatasephpP. Biochemical studies performed with recombinant StkP suggest that this protein is a functional eukaryotic-type Ser⁄Thr protein kinase.In vitrokinase assays and Western blots ofS. pneumoniaesubcellu-lar fractions revealed that StkP is a membrane protein.

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  • Protein histidine phosphorylation in eukaryotes has been sparsely studied compared to protein serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation. In an attempt to rectify this by probing porcine liver cytosol with the phosphohistidine-containing peptide succinyl-Ala-His(P)-Pro-Phe-p-nitro-anilide (phosphopeptide I), we observed a phosphatase activity that was insensitive towards okadaic acid and EDTA.

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  • Chapter 4 - Cell structure and function. After studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes: Cite the three tenets of the cell theory; explain why cells are so small; describe the structure of the prokaryotic cell in terms of the cell envelope, cytoplasm, and appendages; give a function for each structure;...

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