The study of psychological processes in physical activity and health has grown
considerably in recent years. “Exercise psychologists” study the psychological antecedents
of physical activity and use their theoretical perspectives to inform the design and implementation
of interventions to change sedentary lifestyles. In addition, involvement in
physical activity can have important psychological benefits. Although we have known
this for a very long time, it is only relatively recently that a systematic approach has been
adopted to the accumulation of evidence.
Data were included from individuals participating in a
prospective study of 2,126 Medicare recipients, 65 years
and older, residing in a single community in Northern Man-
hattan. Each person received the same medical, neurological
and neuropsychological evaluations at regular intervals. The
cohort was followed over a 7-year period beginning in 1992.
Three follow-up examinations took place at 20-month in-
tervals after the baseline interview. Over the study period,
the annual mortality rate has been 8.
Diabetes is a growing problem and it is estimated that between 2007 and 2025 Germany, Italy, and
France will have the greatest increases in women aged 20-79 years with diabetes mellitus (DM)
(IDF 2006). For women the average death rate due to DM was 12.8 and among individual countries
the highest rates were observed in Cyprus (35.5), Portugal (25.3), Austria (23.4), and Malta (19.2)
The prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is higher among elderly women than
among elderly men.