Including diabetes and cardiovascular disease

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  • Obesity and its associated disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have now reached epidemic proportions in the Western world, resulting in dramatic increases in healthcare costs. Understanding the pro-cesses and metabolic perturbations that contribute to the expansion of adi-pose depots accompanying obesity is central to the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies.

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  • Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ made up of adipocytes, various stro-mal cells, resident and infiltrating immune cells, and an extensive endo-thelial network. Adipose secretory products, collectively referred to as adipokines, have been identified as contributors to the negative conse-quences of adipose tissue expansion that include cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer.

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  • Nutrition is an important lifestyle factor that contributes to our general feeling well. Recently, it has even further suggested, based on a number of epidemiological studies, that our diet is also associated with the risk of developing a number of chronic diseases, such as diabetes type II, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, many types of cancer, just to name few. Thus, a balanced nutrition is firmly interwoven with many aspects of our long-term health, including the prevention of diseases, albeit this is typically rather associated with the medicinal areas.

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  • Oxidative stress state is involved in the aging process as well as in a vast array of pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, cancer, and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

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  • Research has suggested a link between nutritional deficiencies in early (including prenatal) life, and the development of chronic diseases—cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, cancer, and osteoporosis, among others—some decades later (World Health Organization 2000a, 2000b; Jacoby 2004). A possible link between early nutritional deficiencies and obesity has also been suggested, and it remains an area of ongoing research (Pan American Health Organization 2003).

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  • To begin, at the left of the figure, trends in risk factors or biological markers such as cholesterol and other lipids, weight, and indicators of insulin regulation are separate markers of underlying health and population propensity to disease. At the population level, the age of onset of these factors generally precedes the onset of related diseases like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The second box includes diseases, conditions, and impairments.

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  • The data collected and analyzed helps to inform dental public health policy and programming. It also provides a baseline for noting any improvements that may occur as a result of new oral health promotion and disease prevention initiatives with the goal of achieving better outcomes. One of the reasons oral health was included as a component of the CHMS was to enable future evaluation of the association of oral health with major health concerns such as diabetes, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

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  • In addition to local periodontal tissue involvement, chronic infection of the periodontium together with continuous up-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses and immune mediators may contribute to systemic sequel including diabetes, preterm delivery of lowweight birth babies, lung inflammation, arthritis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

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  • The Women’s Health Study, which included almost 40,000 healthy women at least 45 years of age, found that vitamin E supplements did not reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, cancer, age-related macular degeneration, or cataracts. Although vitamin E supplements were associated with fewer deaths from cardiovascular causes, they did not reduce the overall death rate of study participants.

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  • Published results from the UKPDS were included in this review if they specifically reported results on the relationship between HbA1c and microvascular and/or macrovascular complications. One prospective observational study28 was identified which analysed the UKPDS glucose control results in terms of both macrovascular and microvascular complications. A meta-analysis29 was also identified which assessed the association between glycosylated haemoglobin and cardiovascular (CV) disease in people with diabetes. This included an analysis of 10 studies specifically of people with Type 2 diabetes.

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  • Free radicals are highly unstable molecules that are naturally formed when you exercise and when your body converts food into energy. Your body can also be exposed to free radicals from a variety of environmental sources, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, and sunlight. Free radicals can cause “oxidative stress,” a process that can trigger cell damage.

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  • Patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from an increased incidence of complications including cardiovascular disease and cataracts; the mechanisms responsible for this are not fully understood. One characteristic of such complications is an accumulation of advanced glycation end-products formed by the adduction of glucose or species derived from glucose, such as low-molecular mass aldehydes, to proteins.

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  • While oral conditions are important in and of themselves, there is an increasing awareness regarding their contribution to the incidence and severity of other diseases. Conditions that may be affected by poor oral health include diabetes, respiratory diseases and cardiovascular health. For all of these reasons, it is important that Canadians, and Canadian public, private and professional policy makers become informed as to the extent and severity of oral health conditions in Canada.

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  • In 1990, four of the ten leading causes of death in American women were chronic diseases directly associated with modifiable behavioral factors including physical inactivity or sedentary lifestyle. They were heart disease, certain forms of cancer (specifically, breast and colon cancers), cerebrovascular disease (hypertension and stroke), and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993).

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  • Good nutrition is vital to good health and is absolutely essential for the healthy growth and development of  children and adolescents. Major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States are related to poor diet and  a sedentary lifestyle. Specific diseases and conditions linked to poor diet include cardiovascular disease, hyper­ tension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, overweight and obesity, osteoporosis, constipation, diverticular disease, iron deficiency anemia, oral disease, malnutrition, and some cancers.

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