Including drug delivery

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  • With contributions from many of the world's leading scientists in the field of dendritic research and development, Dendrimers and Other Dendritic Polymers provides a comprehensive review of this rapidly expanding and exciting new field of polymer science. Of interest to academia and industry alike, this book covers the synthesis, characterization, unique properties, potential for novel applications and technical challenges associated with these polymers.

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  • Over 98 per cent of sprayed insecticides and 95 per cent of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, including non-target species, air, water and soil. Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them. Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution and some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants and contribute to soil contamination. Detection of pesticide molecules in the food items from plant and animal origin become imperative for safe consumption of food.

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  • Biodegradable Systems 177 Figure 3 Cumulative release GCV from the scleral plugs of PLA-70,000 and PLA-5000 (whose content ratio was 80:20) containing 25% of GCV. The values shown are mean Æ SD. The duration of GCV release was prolonged further compared with the plug made of PLGA (75/25)-121,000. Abbreviations: GCV, ganciclovir; PLA, polylactic acid; PLGA, polyglycolic acid. Source: From Ref. 4. weight: 5000) at weight ratios of 80/20. These plugs included 25% GCV.

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  • The marketing of agricultural commodities in the United States is done by a private enterprise system. It involves millions of individual decisions (to grow, to buy, to sell, to store, to ship) on the part of farmers, marketing men, and consumers. Agricultural marketing is a huge national and international operation. The marketing system is intricate. It is sensitive to many economic and international developments, which include strikes, weather, political upheavals and related factors that affect marketing activities.

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  • Today’s customer-focused, market-driven company cannot afford to miss the fact that many customers prefer environmentally friendly products given a similar cost. Again, it is easy to see that creating and sustaining competitive advantage is still a matter of “better, cheaper, faster.” The Internet has made customers more informed about every aspect of a product, including its potential environmental harms. Companies that can meet these environmental needs will be the winners.

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  • By performing this join in-network, REED can dramati- cally reduce the communications burden on the network topology, especially when there are relatively few satisfy- ing tuples, as is typically the case when identifying failures in condition-based monitoring or process compliance ap- plications. Reducing communication in this way is particu- larly important in many industrial scenarios when relatively high data rate sampling (e.g., 100’s of Hertz) is required to perform the requisite monitoring [10].

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  • To help inform prevention and control strategies, research efforts have been directed at establishing the likely contributors to this rise in campylobacteriosis incidence. Consistent with international findings (6–8), New Zealand investigations implicated poultry meat as a significant source of foodborne sporadic campylobacteriosis (9–13). A relatively small case–control study in Christchurch in 1992–1993 reported several poultry-associated risk factors, including consumption of undercooked poultry (10).

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  • This revised guidance comes at a time of modernisation and change. New NHS structures such as Primary Care Organisations and Strategic Health Authorities (Regional Offices and Local Health Boards in Wales) mean many of those concerned in these bodies will need to learn afresh what needs to be done and why. They need to appreciate how their organisation can contribute effectively to improving outcomes, including acting together for more centralised services such as radiotherapy. An increasing range of cancer policies is now available, together with NICE appraisals.

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  • Special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children in the first 5 years of life include difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Patients in this age group are often managed by pediatricians who are routinely faced with a wide variety of issues related to childhood diseases. Therefore, for the convenience of readers this Executive Summary extracts sections of the report that pertain to diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

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  • Countries and donors have agreed a set of principles around aid effectiveness to address these challenges. 21 Countries will work to develop national health plans and donors will align their aid accordingly. They will also harmonize their budgets, providing separate health budget lines, with all public spending and donor financing included. Already, countries and donors are using the International Health Partnership (IHP+) to improve and harmonize their activities, reduce fragmentation and ensure that more funding flows rapidly to those who need it.

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  • In chapter nineteen, Kaneda et al. develop a hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) vector using inactivated Sendai virus, as a pseudovirion for gene and drug delivery. They evaluate the anti-tumor effects of HVJ-E itself on mouse and human melanoma in animal models, and also the enhancement of anti-tumor effects of HVJ-E containing IL-12 gene.

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  • This chapter focuses on specific pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and drug delivery issues relevant to ocular therapy and imparted by the unique anatomy and function of this sensory organ, introduced at the outset of this chapter. Many of the pharmacological agents discussed here have been discussed in earlier chapters. Autonomic agents have several uses in ophthalmology, including diagnostic evaluation of anisocoria and myasthenia gravis, as adjunctive therapy in laser and incisional surgeries, and in the treatment of glaucoma....

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  • Case studies for existing risks in the first section include drug use in Italian professional delivery truck drivers and using look-back risk assessment for syringe reuse in Canada. The first chapter by Oraby et al. describes the occurrence of syringe reuse reported in a Canadian health care setting on approximately 1,400 patients in the province of Alberta. Multiple syringe re-use events may act as a vector to transmit both RNA and DNA viruses.

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  • In this book, we present the state of the art of nanotechnology research intended for applications in biomedical technologies in three subfields: nanodrugs and drug delivery inside the body; prostheses and implants; and diagnostics and screening technologies for laboratory use. For each of these three subfields, we explore the relevant developments in research. Nanoparticles such as nanotubes and quantum dots are increasingly applied as drug delivery vehicles.

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  • Drinking no more than two standard drinks, defined as 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80 proof liquor [26] in 24 hours to a maximum of 14 drinks per week for men and nine drinks per week for women, has been termed “low-risk.” However, this recommendation can vary in the context of patients’ other coexisting medical conditions such as with the use of pre- scription drugs including “pain killers” [26].

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  • Indonesia has received GFATM grants since 2003 with 17 grants worth $500 million across the three diseases. Grants have been awarded to the MOH, National AIDS Commission and civil society partners. Grants to the MOH are used to procure all ARVs and many of the ACTs and MDR-TB treatment regimens in Indonesia.

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  • Some of the poorest countries have significantly reduced maternal and newborn mortality and improved women’s and children’s health. Innovative approaches can achieve even more, eliminating barriers to health and producing better outcomes. These approaches need to be applied to all activities: leadership, financing (including incentives to achieve better performance and results), tools and interventions, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation.

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  • Now a new, third option (Option B+) proposes further evolution—not only providing the same triple ARV drugs to all HIV-infected pregnant women beginning in the antenatal clinic setting but also continuing this therapy for all of these women for life. Important advantages of Option B+ include: further simplification of regimen and service delivery and harmonization with ART programmes, protection against mother-to-child transmission in future pregnancies, a continuing prevention benefit against sexual transmission to serodiscordant partners, and avoiding stopping and starting of ARV drugs.

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  • Easier implementation could expand services. Reported difficulties with implementing PMTCT programmes, including the challenge of providing ARV treatment in MCH settings and at the primary care level, highlight the importance of simplifying drug regimens and operational delivery, as exemplified by Options B and B+. Easier implementation should facilitate expansion of services and more effective programmes. This will, however, require strengthened antenatal services, task-shifting, more effective ARV service delivery in MCH settings and direct linkages with ART programmes.

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  • The referral system is not functional, and patients often ignore secondary or tertiary care due to the high costs involved. Stock- outs of drugs and supplies and inadequate HRH availability impact service delivery. Lack of financial and human resources adversely impacts regulation and quality control. Many services, including those related to HIV and tuberculosis (TB), are not well integrated into the general health delivery system and continue to be provided vertically.

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