Technological improvements, more efficient international communications and
transportation, regional economic integration and a number of trade agreements
have dramatically changed the international business environment and contributed
to the growth of international trade. At a macro level, increasing exports is
considered to have positive effects on economic growth and employment levels.
At a micro level, exporting allows firms to pursue growth opportunities, diversify
business risks and increase profits (Leonidou and Katsikeas 1996; Ramaseshan and
If countries can specialise in certain goods they can benefit from economies of scale and lower average costs, this is
especially true in industries with high fixed costs or that require high levels of investment. The benefits of economies of
scale will ultimately lead to lower prices for consumers.
Japanese business has changed tremendously in the past decade.
Once sacred institutions such as lifetime employment and
seniority - based promotion in the workplace have increasingly been
replaced by “ temp ” contracts and performance - based pay. During
Japan ’ s miracle growth years in the two decades following the
end of World War II, the nation ’ s schools churned out a veritable
“ soldier ” class of white - collared sarariman (salaried men) and OLs
(offi ce ladies) dedicated to building their country into an economic
superpower. And they succeeded.
Armor materials are remarkable: Able to stop multiple
hits and save lives, they are essential to our military capability
in the current conflicts. But as threats have increased,
armor systems have become heavier, creating a huge burden
for the warfighter and even for combat vehicles.
Among the recommendations of the report: a restoration economy
that creates jobs through coastal repair and environmental
monitoring; creation of a health care network with the proficiency to
diagnose and treat environmental exposures; immediate increase in
mental health care; independent seafood monitoring; future
research that does not only study those impacted but also provides
The decline in the value of the currency makes the adjusting country’s goods more competitive
internationally. With a lower-valued currency, imports are more expensive relative to domestically
produced goods, which should lead to a substitution of domestically produced items for imports. At
the same time, a lower-valued currency makes the adjusting country’s exports cheaper for its trading
partners. This should lead them to purchase more of the country’s exports.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: RTE and CTE mRNA export elements synergistically increase expression of unstable, Rev-dependent HIV and SIV mRNAs
The UK is an open economy and an active and successful international trader and
investor. But the UK’s reliance on debt-financed consumer and government spending,
and on the financial sector, has driven growing imbalances in the UK economy.
According to the OECD, by 2007 the UK had the largest structural budget deficit in the
G7 group of countries. The current account deficit was around 2¾% of GDP in 2007, a
figure that was offset by a 2¼% surplus on trade in financial services.
What does it mean to say that the corporate executive has a "social responsibility" in his
capacity as businessman? If this statement is not pure rhetoric, it must mean that he is to act in
some way that is not in the interest of his employers. For example, that he is to refrain from
increasing the price of the product in order to contribute to the social objective of preventing
inflation, even though a price increase would be in the best interests of the corporation. Or
that he is to make expenditures on reducing pollution beyond the amount that is...
Tourism is big business and getting bigger. In the 20 years from1980 to 2000
global tourism receipts increased at an annual rate of nearly 8 per cent,
much faster than the rate of world economic growth of around 3 per cent.
In 2000, income from tourism combined with passenger transport totaled
more than $575 billion, making this sector the world number one export
earner, ahead of automotive production, chemicals, petroleum and food
(UNEP web site1).
The model shows that developing countries will consume and produce a much greater share of the
world’s fish in the future, and trade in fish commodities will also increase. As aquaculture expands, especially
in developing countries, environmental concerns such as effluent pollution, escaped farmed fish,
land conversion, and pressure on stocks from fishmeal demand will only increase with time unless technologies
and policies promote sustainable intensification.
With global populations on the rise and the increasing threat associated with climate change, the need for the development of low emission energy resources is clear. Geothermal energy, which originates from the underground heat of the earth (Sankaran, 2002), has the advantage of being a low-emission, baseload energy resource. Unlike other alternative energy resources, geothermal energy production does not fluctuate with time of day or season.
When the United States sneezes, an economists’
proverb says, the rest of the world catches a cold.
Between 1995 and 2005, the United States
accounted directly for one-third of global economic expansion,
according to the nonprofit Council on Competitiveness.
Between 1983 and 2004, soaring U.S. imports added nearly 20
percent of the increase of the world’s exports.
industrialisation strategies adopted and economic policies followed have shown
great differences before and after 1980. An import substitution policy had been
implemented until 1980. However, after 1980, significant progress has been made
towards establishing the principles and fundamentals of a market economy through
the introduction of export-oriented industrialisation.
These reforms made significant contribution to the dynamism of the private sector
and improved the adaptability of Turkish economy to internal and external impacts.
Global credit squeeze, escalating political tensions and monetary
tightening will weigh on economic growth in 2008. From 2006 to
2007, the annual growth rate decreased from 6.9% to 4.5%. Slower
growth in 2007 was attributable to the strength of the Turkish
currency, which hurt the export industry, the delayed effects of
monetary tightening in mid-2006 and a drought-related drop in
agricultural output. The most significant slowdowns in growth in
2007 were in agriculture, construction and manufacturing.
Most of the remittance-receiving countries witnessed a significant macro-economic impact of
remittances, not only in terms of hel ping increase foreign currency earnings, but also by virtue of
representing a sizeable share of a country’s GDP, Moreover, these resources help expand markets
through spending and investment. Table 1 shows that the amount of remittances received by these
countries is far larger than FDI or ODA. When compared with exports, remittances also represent a
significant portion of that revenue.
The risks to global value chains emerge not only from the decline in international trade, but also
from key suppliers facing bankruptcy, and from firms re-considering their investment strategies and
retrenching to core markets. Protectionist policies could exacerbate these risks. It would increase
the input costs for domestic industries and would penalise exporters twice, through higher costs and
through retaliation from other countries.
In recent years Vietnam’s forest coverage has
undergone rapid expansion, with a marked
increase in plantings of exotic species of
Eucalyptus, Acacia and Pinus. This expansion
provides excellent opportunities for new
international export markets for timber
products. However it also represents new and
increased risks from forestry pests and
diseases, which in outbreak circumstances can
have catastrophic consequences on plantation
establishment and productivity. These risks
come from pest and disease species already
established in Vietnam, and exotic species not
yet present in the country....
By entering the East Asian economic model (EAEM) in the 1950s, the Thai economy was committed to the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour-cost manufacturing paradigm that Vietnam and Cambodia have more recently embraced. The EAEM provides for some success in expanding employment in the manufacturing sector and promoting income generation for its workers and, overall, in promoting national economic development.
This economic development has resulted in a significant increase in the living standards of
the Chinese people, and has also led to further needs for economic construction. These
changes in turn have created an expanding consumer market in China, and have generated a
growing need for imported goods. New Zealand does, of course, export goods to China, and
over the past twenty years New Zealand's exports to China have grown , from NZ$ 1 million
in 1972, to over $275 million in 1991. However, exports to China in 1991 still represented
only about 1.