The concept of rate-modulated (rate-responsive, rate-adaptive) pacemakers is to move beyond simple backup pacing for bradycardias to helping a patient adapt to physiologic stress with an increase in heart rate, even if the patient's intrinsic sinus node normally would not allow this to occur. The development of dual-chamber pacemakers allows a patient to increase the heart rate if he or she is in sinus rhythm and sinus function is intact. Many patients, however, have sick sinus syndrome that prevents normal physiologic sinus node response to exercise, stress, or chronic atrial fibrillation.
About one-third of American women will
eventually have a hysterectomy, the second
most common surgery after cesarean
section. Why so common? Basically,
hysterectomy can cure a variety of uterine problems:
✿ Fibroids. Hysterectomy is most often recommended
for serious cases of fibroids (benign tumors
that grow in the uterus wall). Fibroids can grow
large and may cause great pain and heavy bleeding.
Depending on the severity, physicians and patients
may decide to try treatments other than hysterectomy.
In a surgery called myomectomy, the fibroids
are removed but the uterus stays in place.
We view this increasing inverse correlation ofmotion and shot length as an amplifying
effect. That is, short shots likely increase viewer response to ﬁlms and ﬁlm segments, forcing
observer eye movements to quickly reevaluate each new visual depiction and increasing
heart rate and other bodily responses (Carruthers and Taggart 1973). Addingmoremotion
to these short shots is likely to increase viewer response all the more.We suggest that this
increasing correlationmay help to couple attention to broader physiological responses.
First, whether you are dining at your home or at a restaurant, have your prospect seated with his back to a solid wall or screen. Research shows that respiration, heart rate, brain wave frequencies and blood pressure rapidly increase when a person sits with his back to an open space, particularly where others are moving about. Tension is further increased if the person’s back is towards an open door or a window at ground level. Next, the lights should be dimmed and muffled background music played. Many top restaurants have an open fireplace or facsimile near the entrance of the...
Diuretics increase the rate of urine flow and sodium excretion and are used to adjust the volume
and/or composition of body fluids in a variety of clinical situations, including hypertension, heart
failure, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and cirrhosis. The objective of this chapter is to provide
the reader with unifying concepts as to how the kidney operates and how diuretics modify renal
function. The chapter begins with a description of renal anatomy and physiology, as this
information is prerequisite to a discussion of diuretic pharmacology....
Presyncopal symptoms vary in duration and may increase in severity until loss of consciousness occurs, or they may resolve prior to loss of consciousness if the cerebral ischemia is corrected. The differentiation of syncope from seizure is an important, sometimes difficult, diagnostic problem.Syncope may be benign when it occurs as a result of normal cardiovascular reflex effects on heart rate and vascular tone, or serious when due to a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia.
Physiology of Circadian Rhythmicity
The sleep-wake cycle is the most evident of the many 24-h rhythms in humans. Prominent daily variations also occur in endocrine, thermoregulatory, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, and neurobehavioral functions. At the molecular level, endogenous circadian rhythmicity is driven by self-sustaining transcriptional/translational feedback loops (Fig. 28-2). In evaluating a daily variation in humans, it is important to distinguish between those rhythmic components passively evoked by periodic environmental or behavioral changes (e.g.
Distinguishing Cardiovascular from Respiratory System Dyspnea If a patient has evidence of both pulmonary and cardiac disease, a cardiopulmonary exercise test should be carried out to determine which system is responsible for the exercise limitation. If, at peak exercise, the patient achieves predicted maximal ventilation, demonstrates an increase in dead space or hypoxemia (oxygen saturation below 90%), or develops bronchospasm, the respiratory system is probably the cause of the problem.
Because death rate increases with age, stroke mortality is highest among elderly women. In 2005
the death rate from stroke for women over 65 varied from highs of 1,276.55/100,000 in Latvia and
874.43/100,000 in Lithuania to lows of 218.44/100,000 in France and 297/100,000 in Iceland (WHO
There are a number of known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in women.