Independent discipline

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  • The apparent division between cultural and linguistic approaches to translation that characterized much translation research until the 1980s is disappearing, partly because of shifts in linguistics that have seen that discipline take a more overtly cultural turn, partly because those who advocated an approach to translation rooted in cultural history have become less defensive about their position.

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  • Over the past several years, scientists, public health officials, and policy makers have become increasingly interested in understanding how the emergence and spread of infectious diseases could be affected by environmental factors, particularly variations in climate. In September 1995 the Institute of Medicine/ National Academy of Sciences and the National Science and Technology Council held a Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change.

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  • These handbooks were first published as Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals in 1985 for use by DOE category A reactors. The subject areas, subject matter content, and level of detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources. DOE Category A reactor training managers determined which materials should be included, and served as a primary reference in the initial development phase.

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  • The direction of science is often driven by methodological progress, and the topic of this book is no exception. I remember sitting with a visitor on the terrace of a hotel overlooking Lake Constance in the early 1970s. We were discussing the gravimetric method of measuring total lipids in zooplankton. A few years later, as a visitor in Clyde E. Goulden’s lab, I was greatly impressed by the ability of an instrument called an Iatroscan to discriminate and quantify specific lipid classes (e.g., triacylglycerols, polar lipids, wax esters).

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  • The literary and informational texts chosen for study should be rich in content. Since certain works are products of exceptional craft and thought, all students should have access to these especially strong models of thinking and writing. This includes texts that have broad resonance and are referred to and quoted often, such as influential political documents, foundational literary works, and seminal historical and scientific texts.

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  • The discipline of economics has developed principles, theories, and models that isolate the most important determinants of economic events. In constructing a model, economists make assumptions to eliminate unnecessary detail to reduce the complexity of economic behavior. Once modeled, economic behavior may be presented as a relationship between dependent and independent variables. The behavior being explained is the dependent variable; the economic events explaining that behavior are the independent variables.

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  • In the past, the formal discipline of project management was applied primarily to very large projects lasting several years and costing millions of dollars; this was as true for information technology (IT) projects as it was for other industries. Furthermore in the 20th century, project management methods were largely based upon “command and control” techniques. These techniques evolved from ancient military regimes and dictatorial governments, where relatively few educated people directed large numbers of uneducated people.

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  • Over the last 15 years, business history has exploded as a discipline, while much business history also was made during the boom economy of the 1990s. As a result, the need for a business history encyclopedia has become more important as a means of chronicling these events and showing their antecedents, stretching back to American independence.

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  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been from its beginning the wave of evolution in computer science. It is in good health and a proof of it is the fact that many companies qualify its novelties as ‘smart’ or ‘intelligent’ independently of the features included in them; the term ‘society of knowledge’ has been imposed to draw society nearer to the future and a symbol of breakthrough.

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  • Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six children. His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. His education started in the second grade, because he could already read before kindergarten. When Carl was 12, his family moved to a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence. With a strict upbringing and many chores, Carl was to become rather isolated, independent, and self-disciplined....

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  • Mathematical Modeling I – preliminary is designed for undergraduate students. Two other followup books, Mathematical Modeling II – advanced and Mathematical Modeling III – case studies in biology, will be published. II and III will be designed for both graduate students and undergraduate students. All the three books are independent and useful for study and application of mathematical modeling in any discipline.

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  • The 20 learning weeks are organized in distinct modules that each focus on a specific aspect and / or level of Business Engineering or underlying disciplines, respectively. Initially, the entire program was developed independently from other Executive MBA programs and comprised one four-week and 14 one-week modules. Since selected modules of the Executive MBA in Business Engineering are identical with modules of other Executive MBA programs, a program structure comprising ‘general’ and ‘spe- cific’ modules was adopted.

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  • Chronic pain and substance abuse are common problems. Each entity represents a significant and independent burden to the patients affected by them, the healthcare system caring for them, and society at large supporting them. If the two problems occur together, all of these burdens and their consequences are magnified. Traditional treatments fail a substantial percentage of even the most straightforward cases. Clearly, new approaches are required for the most complex of cases.

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  • Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. It helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. In this chapter introduce internal audit.

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