Measurement is a multidisciplinary experimental science. Measurement systems synergistically blend science, engineering and statistical methods to provide fundamental data for research, design and development, control of processes and operations, and facilitate safe and economic performance of systems. In recent years, measuring techniques have expanded rapidly and gained maturity, through extensive research activities and hardware advancements.
American Costumer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)
and European Customer Satisfaction Index (ECSI)
Intangible economic indicators
Conducts analyses of customer service quality in 35
separate industries, 190 companies and government
agencies on a scale of 1 to 100
Post-consumption assessment by the user about the
product or service gained
Uses expectancy confirmation-disconfirmation approach:
focuses on service comparisons with customers prior
Many important decisions are based on the results of chemical quantitative analysis; the results are used, for
example, to estimate yields, to check materials against specifications or statutory limits, or to estimate
monetary value. Whenever decisions are based on analytical results, it is important to have some indication
of the quality of the results, that is, the extent to which they can be relied on for the purpose in hand.
Fourteen indicators that measure the frequency of lexico-syntactic phenomena linguistically related to aspectual class are applied to aspectual classification. This group of indicators is shown to improve classification performance for two aspectual distinctions, stativity and completedness (i.e., telicity), over unrestricted sets of verbs from two corpora. Several of these indicators have not previously been discovered to correlate with aspect.
The analysis of reading times can provide insights into the processes that underlie language comprehension, with longer reading times indicating greater cognitive load. There is evidence that the language processor is highly predictive, such that prior context allows upcoming linguistic material to be anticipated. Previous work has investigated the contributions of semantic and syntactic contexts in isolation, essentially treating them as independent factors.
This paper describes an approach to utilizing term weights for sentiment analysis tasks and shows how various term weighting schemes improve the performance of sentiment analysis systems. Previously, sentiment analysis was mostly studied under data-driven and lexicon-based frameworks. Such work generally exploits textual features for fact-based analysis tasks or lexical indicators from a sentiment lexicon. We propose to model term weighting into a sentiment analysis system utilizing collection statistics, contextual and topicrelated characteristics as well as opinionrelated properties.
Measure words in Chinese are used to indicate the count of nouns. Conventional statistical machine translation (SMT) systems do not perform well on measure word generation due to data sparseness and the potential long distance dependency between measure words and their corresponding head words. In this paper, we propose a statistical model to generate appropriate measure words of nouns for an English-to-Chinese SMT system. We model the probability of measure word generation by utilizing lexical and syntactic knowledge from both source and target sentences. ...
Current guidelines in the three water-related areas (drinking water, wastewater and recreational water) assess quality, in microbiological terms, by measuring indicator organisms. This chapter looks at the history and examines some of the methods used to assess the microbiological quality of water, highlighting the current limitations and also possible future developments.
This paper proposes the use of uncertainty reduction in machine learning methods such as co-training and bilingual bootstrapping, which are referred to, in a general term, as ‘collaborative bootstrapping’. The paper indicates that uncertainty reduction is an important factor for enhancing the performance of collaborative bootstrapping.
osing a Behavior to Measure
Errors in Measuring Behavior
Overview of Two Types of Measurement
Errors: Bias and Random Error
Errors Due to the Observer: Bias and
Errors in Administering the Measure: Bias
and Random Error
Errors Due to the Participant: Bias and
Summary of the Three Sources and Two
Types of Measurement Error
Reliability: The (Relative) Absence of
The Importance of Being Reliable:
Reliability as a Prerequisite to Validity
Using Test–Retest Reliability to Assess
Overall Reliability: To What Degree Is a
Measure “Random Error Free” ?
The term environment broadly indicates the surroundings of an individual
organism or a community of organisms, ranging on up to the entire biosphere,
the zone of Earth that is able to sustain life. By surroundings is meant all the
nonliving and living materials that play any role in an organism's existence,
from soil and air to what the organism feeds on and the organisms that may
feed on it. Any other factors acting on the organism, such as heat and light and
gravitation, make up its environment as well. In the case of human beings,
cultural factors may also be included in the term....
The empirical relationship between capital controls and the financial development of credit and equity markets is examined. We extend the literature on this subject along a number of dimensions.Specifically, we
(1) investigate a substantially broader set of proxy measures of financial development;
(2) create and utilize a new index based on the IMF measures of exchange restrictions that incorporates a measure of the intensity of capital controls; and (3) extend the previous literature by systematically examining the implications of institutional (legal) factors.
Organized primarily by sensor application, the book is cross-referenced with indices of sensor technology. Manufacturers are listed by sensor type. The other contributors and I have attempted to provide a useful handbook with technical explanations that are clear, simple and thorough. We will also attempt to keep it updated as the technology advances.
Within technical analysis, indicators are used as a measure to gain further insight into to the supply and demand of securities. Indicators, such as volume, are used to confirm price movement and the probability that the given move will continue. Along with using indicators as secondary confirmation tools, they can also be used as a basis for trading as they can form buy-and-sell signals. In this tutorial, we'll take you through the second building block of technical analysis and explore oscillators and indicator in depth.......
This chapter presents an overview of quantitative indicators of financial structure, devel-
opment, and soundness. It provides guidance on key system-wide and sectoral indicators,
including definitions, measurement, and usage. Key data sources for these indicators
are explained in appendix C (Data Sources for Financial Sector Assessments). Detailed
analysis and benchmarking of these indicators are discussed in chapters 3 and 4. More
detailed data requirements are presented in appendix B (Illustrative Data Questionnaires
for Comprehensive Financial Sector Assessments)....
Corporate Management, Governance, and Ethics Best Practices was written to provide a
one-stop, comprehensive reference source for corporate business practitioners and government
employees worldwide. It takes a “big picture” approach to the subject matter and
compiles best practices to show what the best practices are but does not address how to
implement them. We believe that implementation of best practices is organization-specific
based on resource availability and management strategies and priorities....
This IBM® Redbook is primarily intended for use by IBM Clients and IBM
Business Partners. In it we discuss and demonstrate technology, architectures,
techniques, and product capabilities for business performance management
BPM is a relatively new and evolving initiative that brings together a number of
technologies to monitor and manage the attainment of business measurements
and goals. However, this redbook is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise
on BPM, but more of an introduction to help you understand it and get started
with your implementation....
Corporate Management, Governance, and Ethics Best Practices was written to provide a one-stop, comprehensive reference source for corporate business practitioners and government employees worldwide. It takes a “big picture” approach to the subject matter and compiles best practices to show what the best practices are but does not address how to implement them. We believe that implementation of best practices is organization-specific based on resource availability and management strategies and priorities....