There is a change happening in the practice of applied anthropology. A new
ﬁeld of ‘indigenous knowledge’ is emerging which aims to make local voices
heard and ensure that development initiatives meet the needs of ordinary
people. Indigenous knowledge, an aspect of participatory approaches to devel-
opment, offers an alternative to schemes and strategies that are imposed on
lesser developed countries by international agencies and state organizations.
The objective of seismic design force of 400, 450 and 550 gal 0.16, 0.50 and 0.84 fractile hazard
corresponding curves. It was confirmed that, even with the same model structure and objectives
seismic design forces vary with differences in the probability of occurrence of
earthquakes. The relationship between total costs and seismic forces in the 0.50 and 0.85
fractile hazard curves, the total cost at 750 gal locally low. This is because the seismic risk
is very high at 650 and 700 gal.
Aligned to the principle that development needs to start with what people know and build on their knowledge and experiences, the authors of this paper provide some examples of how important indigenous or local knowledge is to its users, different ways in which they use this knowledge, and the potential that indigenous knowledge has in some areas of agricultural development.
As Vietnam has rich resources of local chicken breeds, some of them are known having a certain level of infectious disease resistance. Knowledge of the single-nucleotide polymorphism in exon 14 of the chicken Mx gene will facilitate further researches on the resistant activity of Mx gene and its use for breeding of influenza virus resistant chicken varieties. This study aimed to investigate the exon 14 polymorphisms of the Mx gene in some representative indigenous chicken breeds collected from different locals in Vietnam.
It is estimated that approximately one-third of
the world’s population are using groundwater for drinking purposes. Pollution of ground
water due to industrial effluents is a major issue (Vasanthavigar et al., 2011). Poor
groundwater quality brings negative impact to human health and plant growth. In
developing countries like India, it is estimated that around 80% of all diseases are directly
related to poor drinking water quality and unhygienic conditions (Olajire & Imeokparia,
2001; Vasanthavigar et al., 2011).
Europe has many market niches where traditional forms of production are still
dominant. The geographic variety of Europe certainly stimulates the existence
of diverse niches with a clear local colour and identity. Even in the age of mass
production and consumption such pockets of often place-bound products have
not disappeared. Rather, they are enjoying a comeback, as the public at large is
increasingly looking for goods with indigenous or specific qualities.
A desirable characteristic of a performance measure is that it be timely, i.e., measure the effect of the manager's actions on firm value at the time those actions are taken (Holmstrom, 1982). This suggests earnings should incorporate the future cash flow effects of managers' actions. Ifthis was all there were to the determination of earnings, we could understand the robust result from thirty years of evidence that, for shorter horizons, average annual earnings is relatively well-described by a random walk (see Watts and Zimmerman, 1986, chapter 6).
After the ore is extracted, it is generally transferred by
bridge conveyor, shuttle cars or load-haul-dump units
to a system of conveyors that carry it to underground
storage bins, prior to haulage to the surface through a
shaft by automated skips. On rare occasions shallow
mines may use a decline and conveyor arrangement.
Solution mining is currently used at a number of
operations in North America. The process relies on
the greater solubility at elevated temperatures in brine
of sylvite in comparison to salt (NaCl).
Second, the sample period in this study covers a full business cycle, thereby
providing a better indication of the relative variability of lending activities experienced by
commercial banks over this period. Brewer, Minton, and Moser (2000) document a universal
downward trend of C&I lending over a sample period of 1985 to 1992, a period during which
the economy experienced a significant cyclical downturn.
Other methods have proposed the use of standard beads (Polysciences latex beads), as well
described by Gasol and del Giorgio in 2000. Briefly, the beads have to be counted every day
and must be sonicated to avoid aggregation.
Flow rate calibration can be performed by weighing a tube containing water, processing
various volumes, estimating the time needed for each volume to go through and then
reweighing the tube. This makes it possible to calculate the mean of the flow rate per minute
To avoid headaches and tap into a wider pool of prospective tenants, many landlords consider
the lease-purchase of their home. This option attracts many potential buyers who could handle
the monthly mortgage payments but can’t afford the required down payment. Here’s how it
You lease your house to the tenant for a specific monthly rent. In addition, the tenant pays you
for the right to purchase the home within the option period, usually six months to two years later.
This payment is called the option consideration.
The central panel of the northern and southern walls contained a quadrant painted with
xenia, while the wall of the ground floor, or west, was an image of the river Sarno as
penates placed between two festoons of flowers. The image was described as a bearded
god wearing a crown of reeds. He was sitting on the ground under the shade of a sacred
tree. Resting on his left elbow on an overturned urn, he held a reed in his left hand, and
his right hand rested on the corresponding knee. He was nude from the upper part of
Analysis including data only from satisfactory quality studies found no evidence of a
difference in content for 20 of the 23 nutrient categories analysed. In these analyses,
conventionally produced crops were found to have significantly higher levels of nitrogen
than organically produced crops, while organically produced crops were found to have
significantly higher levels of phosphorus and higher titratable acidity than conventionally
It has been called an audit because it is an
attempt, the first as far as we are aware,
to take stock: to pull together in one place,
from the bewildering variety of sources
that provide such information, all the
available data on cultural infrastructure
and consumption. It systematically
attempts to make this data robust: to verify
it, ensure as far as possible that it is not
partial or selective, and quantify it in such a
way that it allows London to be compared
with other cities.
To assist judgement, we have also recorded,
as far as possible on a...
Whether to co-process alternative fuels in cement kilns can be evaluated upon
environmental and economic criteria. As is discussed in detail below, the potential
benefits of burning alternative fuels at cement plants are numerous. However, the
contrary is possible, when poor planning results in projects where cement kilns have
higher emissions, or where alternative fuels are not put to their highest value use. Five
guiding principles outlined by the German development agency, GTZ, and Holcim Group
hope that this volume will provide an update on the state of pesticide science with
relevance to pesticides residues and metabolism and will stimulate innovative and
significant impact on researchers and students on the subject and go further in the line
of research. I am grateful to all the authors who contributed their expertise towards
the production of a precious volume.
I am indebted to Professor K.Gunathilagaraj, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
India for his inspiration and eminent guidance to hone my skills in editing. I
acknowledge Dr. N.
Our aim is to minimise the harm caused by flooding. This involves reducing the likelihood of flooding and
reducing the impacts when flooding occurs. At the same time there are underlying pressures that are increasing
risk, such as climate change, housing development or changes in land use. Sometimes we can affect these
drivers, for example by influencing planning and land development. There are, however, other drivers that are
beyond our direct influence, such as climate change impacts on the weather and sea level rise.
Some critics also view these investments as running counter to the fund’s fiduciary duty.
While public-sector pension funds are exempt from ERISA (1974 federal law over private
pension funds) and are governed by varied state laws, ERISA standards and its treatment
of economically targeted investments (ETIs) are cited as a transferable legal framework. The
Department of Labor issued an interpretative bulletin (1994) stating that private pension
funds may pursue ETIs as long as they meet standard prudent investment guidelines and seek
appropriate risk/return characteristics (U.S.
Implementable on a desk-top PC, CreditManager allows users to capture, calculate
and display the informa tion they need to manage the risk of individual credi t
derivatives, or a portfolio of credits. CreditManager handles most credi t
instruments including bonds, loans, commitments, letter of credit, market-driven
instruments such as swaps and forwards, as we ll as the credit derivatives as
discussed in this guide.
Scrum is an iterative, incremental framework. Scrum structures product development in cycles
of work called Sprints, iterations of work which are typically 1-4 weeks in length, and which
take place one after the other. The Sprints are of fixed duration – they end on a specific date
whether the work has been completed or not, and are never extended. At the beginning of
each Sprint, a cross-functional team selects items from a prioritized list of requirements, and
commits to complete them by the end of the Sprint; during the Sprint, the deliverable does not