ABSTRACT. Scholars have long suspected that political processes such as democracy and corruption are important factors in determining economic growth. Studies show, however, that democracy has only indirect effects on growth, while corruption is generally accepted by scholars as having a direct and negative impact on economic perfor-mance.
Due to their low aqueous solubilities, the PCBs and PAHs lay on the surface of soils and
waters. PCBs and PAHs adsorb strongly to the organic fraction of soils (Girvin & Scott, 1997;
Hiller et al., 2011). Soils contaminated with PCBs and PAHs are transported directly or
indirectly by rivers to the water reservoir and are subsequently converted into the bed
sediments. Therefore, soils could be considered as the primary sinks for these organic
contaminants. PCBs and PAHs are persistent in the environment, resistant to degradation
process, and accumulate in food chain.
Human activities are affecting the global environment in myriad
ways, with numerous direct and indirect effects on ecosystems.
The climate and atmospheric composition of Earth are changing
rapidly. Humans have directly modified half of the ice-free terrestrial
surface and use 40% of terrestrial production. Our actions are
causing the sixth major extinction event in the history of life on
Earth and are radically modifying the interactions among forests,
fields, streams, and oceans.
Such an integrative approach in basic and
clinical gastroenterology seems to be essential for the pathomechanism, proper
diagnosis and management of patients who suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. The
potential reader will not only find in this book the recent advances in the physiology
and pathomechanism of GI tract disorders, but also the treatment options based on
pharmacological and surgical intervention and the recent advances in the biological
therapy with probiotics and prebiotics, which nowadays is a rapidly growing area of
A banking entity may invest in or sponsor a covered
fund if (i) the banking entity is not directly or indirectly
controlled by a U.S. banking entity;
53 (ii) the banking en-
tity is a “foreign banking organization,” or, if not a foreign
banking organization, meets at least two of the following
tests: (a) total non-U.S. assets exceed total U.S. assets;
(b) total non-U.S. revenues exceed total U.S. revenues;
and (c) total non-U.S. income exceeds total U.S. income;
(iii) no ownership interests in the covered fund are of-
fered or sold to a U.S.
The Social Return to Education Since model (1) excludes school resources, the term x jγ potentially captures both
conventional peer group effects and other indirect effects associated with the family
background characteristics of students at school j . For example, wealthy parents may be
more likely to volunteer in their childrens schools, or to vote for increased tax rates to
13 Pollination, Seed Predation, and Seed Dispersal
INSECTS AFFECT PLANT REPRODUCTION AND ASSOCIATED PROCESSES in a variety of ways. Direct and indirect effects of herbivores on plant production and allocation of resources to reproduction were described in Chapter 12.
The direct effect of probiotics
in the lumen include the competition with pathogens for nutrients, production of
antimicrobial substances and in particular organic acids competitive inhibition on the
receptor sites, change in the composition of mucin hydrolysis of toxins, receptor
hydrolysis, and nitric oxide (NO). The indirect effect of probiotics largely depends on
the site of interaction between the probiotic and the effectors of the immune response.
Thantasha et al.
The costs of uncompensated care are estimated to be about $41 billion in 2004. Projected
government spending available to pay for the care of the uninsured in 2004 is $34.6 billion—about 85%
of the total uncompensated care bill. More than half of all funds for uncompensated care come from
the federal government, with the majority (70%) of federal dollars flowing through Medicare and
Medicaid. Most government dollars for uncompensated care goes for hospital care—which is paid
indirectly to hospitals based partly on the share of uncompensated care they provide.
Direct users of the information Apheis produces and disseminates include the scientists who appear just
to the right of the Apheis box and who receive information directly from Apheis.
These scientists in turn pass that information on to other scientists and to committees, seen in the box
further to the right, all of whom thus become pass-on users, because they receive the information Apheis
produces indirectly from Apheis.
Then, the individual scientists and committees pass Apheis information on to the policy advisors below
them, who form another group of pass-on users.
In this paper we examine whether and how accounting information about a firm manifests in its
cost of capital, despite the forces of diversification. We build a model that is consistent with the
CAPM and explicitly allows for multiple securities whose cash flows are correlated. We
demonstrate that the quality of accounting information can influence the cost of capital, both
directly and indirectly. The direct effect occurs because higher quality disclosures affect the
firm’s assessed covariances with other firms’ cash flows, which is non-diversifiable.
As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become
increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic
value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader
view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also
need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee-
based ﬁ nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay-
S ystems ecology, also called ecosystem theory, offers today a complete theory about how ecosystems are working as
systems. The theory will inevitably be improved in the coming years, when it hopefully will be used increasingly to
explain ecological observations and to facilitate environmental management including the use of ecotechnology. The
theory is, however, sufficiently developed today to be presented as a complete theory that offers a wide spectrum of
In the Asian monsoon and adjacent
regions, the aerosol forcing and
responses of the water cycle are
even more complex. Both direct and
indirect effects may take place locally
and simultaneously, interacting with
each other. In addition to local effects,
monsoon rainfall may be affected
by aerosols transported from other
regions and intensif ied through
large-scale circulation and moisture
Ultimately, most household energy interventions - directly or
indirectly - aim to improve health among their target
populations. This module consists of one presentation and
one practical exercise that are concerned with methods
available to monitor the impact of interventions on children's
and women's respiratory health and overall well-being.
A review of the evidence for the linkages between indoor
air pollution, household energy and health provides the
introduction to this module (Figure 5).
Note that the linear relationship between (logged) emissions and
(logged) population implies that we estimate the direct effect of population
on emissions only, but not the indirect effects that might work via the
impact of population on either A or T. This has been critically noted by a
number of participants in the ongoing discussion about the usefulness of
IPAT (e.g., MacKellar, Lutz, Prinz & Goujon, 1995). Such complex inter-
action effects are beyond what can be achieved in this paper and are left for
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Indirect genomic effects on survival from gene expression data...
Mercury released through sewage plants and storm
sewers often contaminates the sediments of lakes
and rivers on a local scale. However, most of the
human-generated mercury that enters the aquatic
system is deposited through the atmosphere in rain,
snow or attached to small dust particles. Mercury
also enters lakes directly from natural geologic
sources. In lakes that have been created by hydro
dams, very high levels of mercury are often found as
a result of natural bacterial processes that become
greatly accelerated by the flooding of land and
decomposition of vegetation.
Consider the family of sensor routing protocols where each sensor communicates either directly or indirectly
with a base station. In turn the base station correlates and aggregates information from each sensor. Accordingly,
the base station will need to verify the authenticity of the sensor, the integrity of the communication and ascertain
that it is not a replay of an earlier communication. Recall the assumption that the base station is computationally
robust and secure. In our protocol each sensor j shares a unique 64 bit Key Key , with the base station.
However, indirect effects on the emerging economy could be even more signifi-
cant. In the case of Serbia, government bonds were a great chance to introduce rules
of financial markets to the wider public, and an opportunity for common citizens to
realize the possibility of gaining profits through securities trading. Throughout our
work, we shall explain the conditions under which government bonds were intro-
duced to the Serbian financial market, as well as the missed opportunities and prob-
lems of bond trading, both on the stock exchange and over-the-counter-market