Indirect effects

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  • ABSTRACT. Scholars have long suspected that political processes such as democracy and corruption are important factors in determining economic growth. Studies show, however, that democracy has only indirect effects on growth, while corruption is generally accepted by scholars as having a direct and negative impact on economic perfor-mance.

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  • Due to their low aqueous solubilities, the PCBs and PAHs lay on the surface of soils and waters. PCBs and PAHs adsorb strongly to the organic fraction of soils (Girvin & Scott, 1997; Hiller et al., 2011). Soils contaminated with PCBs and PAHs are transported directly or indirectly by rivers to the water reservoir and are subsequently converted into the bed sediments. Therefore, soils could be considered as the primary sinks for these organic contaminants. PCBs and PAHs are persistent in the environment, resistant to degradation process, and accumulate in food chain.

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  • Human activities are affecting the global environment in myriad ways, with numerous direct and indirect effects on ecosystems. The climate and atmospheric composition of Earth are changing rapidly. Humans have directly modified half of the ice-free terrestrial surface and use 40% of terrestrial production. Our actions are causing the sixth major extinction event in the history of life on Earth and are radically modifying the interactions among forests, fields, streams, and oceans.

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  • Such an integrative approach in basic and clinical gastroenterology seems to be essential for the pathomechanism, proper diagnosis and management of patients who suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. The potential reader will not only find in this book the recent advances in the physiology and pathomechanism of GI tract disorders, but also the treatment options based on pharmacological and surgical intervention and the recent advances in the biological therapy with probiotics and prebiotics, which nowadays is a rapidly growing area of interest.

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  • A banking entity may invest in or sponsor a covered fund if (i) the banking entity is not directly or indirectly controlled by a U.S. banking entity; 53 (ii) the banking en- tity is a “foreign banking organization,” or, if not a foreign banking organization, meets at least two of the following tests: (a) total non-U.S. assets exceed total U.S. assets; 54 (b) total non-U.S. revenues exceed total U.S. revenues; 55 and (c) total non-U.S. income exceeds total U.S. income; (iii) no ownership interests in the covered fund are of- fered or sold to a U.S.

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  • The Social Return to Education Since model (1) excludes school resources, the term x jγ potentially captures both conventional peer group effects and other indirect effects associated with the family background characteristics of students at school j . For example, wealthy parents may be more likely to volunteer in their children’s schools, or to vote for increased tax rates to support education

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  • 13 Pollination, Seed Predation, and Seed Dispersal INSECTS AFFECT PLANT REPRODUCTION AND ASSOCIATED PROCESSES in a variety of ways. Direct and indirect effects of herbivores on plant production and allocation of resources to reproduction were described in Chapter 12.

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  • The direct effect of probiotics in the lumen include the competition with pathogens for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and in particular organic acids competitive inhibition on the receptor sites, change in the composition of mucin hydrolysis of toxins, receptor hydrolysis, and nitric oxide (NO). The indirect effect of probiotics largely depends on the site of interaction between the probiotic and the effectors of the immune response. Thantasha et al.

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  • The costs of uncompensated care are estimated to be about $41 billion in 2004. Projected government spending available to pay for the care of the uninsured in 2004 is $34.6 billion—about 85% of the total uncompensated care bill. More than half of all funds for uncompensated care come from the federal government, with the majority (70%) of federal dollars flowing through Medicare and Medicaid. Most government dollars for uncompensated care goes for hospital care—which is paid indirectly to hospitals based partly on the share of uncompensated care they provide.

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  • Direct users of the information Apheis produces and disseminates include the scientists who appear just to the right of the Apheis box and who receive information directly from Apheis. These scientists in turn pass that information on to other scientists and to committees, seen in the box further to the right, all of whom thus become pass-on users, because they receive the information Apheis produces indirectly from Apheis. Then, the individual scientists and committees pass Apheis information on to the policy advisors below them, who form another group of pass-on users.

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  • In this paper we examine whether and how accounting information about a firm manifests in its cost of capital, despite the forces of diversification. We build a model that is consistent with the CAPM and explicitly allows for multiple securities whose cash flows are correlated. We demonstrate that the quality of accounting information can influence the cost of capital, both directly and indirectly. The direct effect occurs because higher quality disclosures affect the firm’s assessed covariances with other firms’ cash flows, which is non-diversifiable.

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  • As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee- based fi nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay- ments etc.).

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  • S ystems ecology, also called ecosystem theory, offers today a complete theory about how ecosystems are working as systems. The theory will inevitably be improved in the coming years, when it hopefully will be used increasingly to explain ecological observations and to facilitate environmental management including the use of ecotechnology. The theory is, however, sufficiently developed today to be presented as a complete theory that offers a wide spectrum of applications.

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  • In the Asian monsoon and adjacent regions, the aerosol forcing and responses of the water cycle are even more complex. Both direct and indirect effects may take place locally and simultaneously, interacting with each other. In addition to local effects, monsoon rainfall may be affected by aerosols transported from other regions and intensif ied through large-scale circulation and moisture feedbacks.

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  • Ultimately, most household energy interventions - directly or indirectly - aim to improve health among their target populations. This module consists of one presentation and one practical exercise that are concerned with methods available to monitor the impact of interventions on children's and women's respiratory health and overall well-being. A review of the evidence for the linkages between indoor air pollution, household energy and health provides the introduction to this module (Figure 5).

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  • Note that the linear relationship between (logged) emissions and (logged) population implies that we estimate the direct effect of population on emissions only, but not the indirect effects that might work via the impact of population on either A or T. This has been critically noted by a number of participants in the ongoing discussion about the usefulness of IPAT (e.g., MacKellar, Lutz, Prinz & Goujon, 1995). Such complex inter- action effects are beyond what can be achieved in this paper and are left for future research.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Indirect genomic effects on survival from gene expression data...

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  • Mercury released through sewage plants and storm sewers often contaminates the sediments of lakes and rivers on a local scale. However, most of the human-generated mercury that enters the aquatic system is deposited through the atmosphere in rain, snow or attached to small dust particles. Mercury also enters lakes directly from natural geologic sources. In lakes that have been created by hydro dams, very high levels of mercury are often found as a result of natural bacterial processes that become greatly accelerated by the flooding of land and decomposition of vegetation.

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  • Consider the family of sensor routing protocols where each sensor communicates either directly or indirectly with a base station. In turn the base station correlates and aggregates information from each sensor. Accordingly, the base station will need to verify the authenticity of the sensor, the integrity of the communication and ascertain that it is not a replay of an earlier communication. Recall the assumption that the base station is computationally robust and secure. In our protocol each sensor j shares a unique 64 bit Key Key , with the base station.

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  • However, indirect effects on the emerging economy could be even more signifi- cant. In the case of Serbia, government bonds were a great chance to introduce rules of financial markets to the wider public, and an opportunity for common citizens to realize the possibility of gaining profits through securities trading. Throughout our work, we shall explain the conditions under which government bonds were intro- duced to the Serbian financial market, as well as the missed opportunities and prob- lems of bond trading, both on the stock exchange and over-the-counter-market (OTC)....

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