General. In order that the function and operation of submarine diesel engines may be thoroughly understood, it is necessary to describe briefly the history and development leading to modern design. It is significant that the diesel engine is an outgrowth of the early struggle to improve the efficiency of existing types of other internal combustion engines. Today's fleet type submarine diesel engines are indirectly the result of widespread experimentation in both the Otto (gasoline) engine field and the more recently developed diesel engine field. ...
We planned the first edition of this book on a ‘need to know’
basis, its primary object being to provide students and medical
and dental practitioners with the knowledge essential for an
informed approach to the prevention and treatment of viral
infections. We aimed also at supplying just enough basic virology
to underpin the more practical aspects—clinical manifestations,
epidemiology, pathogenesis, immune responses, and so
forth. And not least, we tried our best to make the text as readable
as is possible, given the highly technical nature of some of
This chapter aims to provide useful information on different extrusions processes, which can be mainly divided into direct and indirect extrusion processes. This also includes basic background on hydrostatic extrusion, extrusions of tubing and production of seamless pipe and tubing. • Principal background and concept of extrusion will be addressed along with the utilisation of mathematical approaches to understand the calculation of extrusion load.
Despite the protection afforded by several important
legal instruments, the environment continues to be the
silent victim of armed conflicts worldwide. The United
Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has conducted
over twenty post-conflict assessments since 1999, using
state-of-the-art science to determine the environmental
impacts of war. From Kosovo to Afghanistan, Sudan and
the Gaza Strip, UNEP has found that armed conflict
causes significant harm to the environment and the
communities that depend on natural resources.
CHAPTER 53 AIR HEATING
Richard J. Reed
North American Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio
AIR-HEATING PROCESSES COSTS
53.1 AIR-HEATING PROCESSES Air can be heated by burning fuel or by recovering waste heat from another process. In either case, the heat can be transferred to air directly or indirectly. Indirect air heaters are heat exchangers wherein the products of combustion never contact or mix with the air to be heated. In waste heat recovery, the heat exchanger is termed a recuperator.
What nature and level of contact is necessary? Consider indirect and direct contact, and if the latter, at what
bureaucratic level is contact most appropriate? Would the measure benefit from a communications campaign?
What tools and/or communications activities (i.e. newsletter, website, public forums, briefings to the Minister)
should be used?
The strategy should make clear the intent and logic of consultation with key stakeholders.
Some 529,000 women die each year in delivery and pregnancy – the over-
whelming majority in developing countries. While women in industrialized
countries face a 1 in 2,800 chance of dying in pregnancy or delivery, the risk
in developing regions is 1 in 61. In sub-Saharan Africa it is as high as 1 in
16. This lifetime risk of death ref lects both pregnancy rates and the qual-
ity of delivery care associated with each pregnancy. Maternal deaths occur
from both direct and indirect complications.
Nitrogen monoxide (NO) is a cytotoxic eﬀector molecule produced by macrophages that results in Fe mobilization from tumour target cells which inhibits DNA synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. It is well known that NO has a high aﬃnity for Fe, and we showed that NO-mediated Fe mobilization is markedly potentiated by glutathione (GSH) generated by the hexose monophosphate shunt [Watts, R.N. & Richardson, D.R. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 4724–4732]. We hypothesized that GSH completes the coordination shell of an NO–Fe complex that is released from the cell.
Increasingly, the ME industry is required to cope with more severe market fluctuations
than most other branches of industry. As on of the prime supplying industries of capital
goods, it is highly dependent on the investment activity of the purchasing companies,
which are highly sensitive to developments in the economy as a whole. This applies
above all to industry’s investments in equipment and machinery, into which most ME
products flow either directly or indirectly.
There is a clear and urgent need for a national research network. This nation stands to gain considerably from the many direct and indirect benefits that would accrue from an NRN.
The OSTP report begins to address the basic issues for an NRN, but it is silent on many important issues, especially those pertaining to the relationship between the NRN and commercial network services. (Nevertheless, the fundamental recommendation for an NRN is sound, as far as it goes.)
Adverse health outcomes of insufficient water are
direct in terms of human water requirements for
survival, and indirect in terms of lack of access to
drinkable water and water suitable for sanitation
and hygiene. Poor quality water (as unsafe water),
inadequate sanitation, and insufficient hygiene are
the major risk factors for diarrheal disease, which is
the second leading contributor to the global burden
Malnutrition in all its forms either directly or indirectly is responsible for approximately
half of all deaths worldwide. This applies to perinatal and infectious diseases as well as
chronic diseases. Malnutrition accounts for 11% of the global burden of disease, leading
to long-term poor health and disability and poor educational and developmental
Worldwide, by 2010 it was found that about 104 million children under five years of age
were underweight and 171 million stunted.
SPECIES CO-OCCURRING AT A SITE INTERACT TO VARIOUS degrees, both directly and indirectly, in ways that have intrigued ecologists since earliest times. These interactions represent mechanisms that control population dynamics, hence community structure, and also control rates of energy and matter ﬂuxes.
Thus, sibship configuration may influence how much parents invest in each of their child’s education and thus contribute to educational inequality within the family. The mechanisms through which parents exhibit their preference for a specific child may be either allocation of family resources among siblings or a subtle form of economic transfers among the siblings. Most prior studies have focused on the direct parental effect of allocation of family resources, and few studies have examined the indirect parental effect of inter-sibling transfer of family resources.
Insomnia Associated with Neurologic Disorders
A variety of neurologic diseases result in sleep disruption through both indirect, nonspecific mechanisms (e.g., pain in cervical spondylosis or low back pain) or by impairment of central neural structures involved in the generation and control of sleep itself. For example, dementia from any cause has long been associated with disturbances in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle, often characterized by nocturnal wandering and an exacerbation of symptomatology at night (so-called sundowning).
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