Indirect mechanisms

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  • General. In order that the function and operation of submarine diesel engines may be thoroughly understood, it is necessary to describe briefly the history and development leading to modern design. It is significant that the diesel engine is an outgrowth of the early struggle to improve the efficiency of existing types of other internal combustion engines. Today's fleet type submarine diesel engines are indirectly the result of widespread experimentation in both the Otto (gasoline) engine field and the more recently developed diesel engine field. ...

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  • We planned the first edition of this book on a ‘need to know’ basis, its primary object being to provide students and medical and dental practitioners with the knowledge essential for an informed approach to the prevention and treatment of viral infections. We aimed also at supplying just enough basic virology to underpin the more practical aspects—clinical manifestations, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immune responses, and so forth. And not least, we tried our best to make the text as readable as is possible, given the highly technical nature of some of the material.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'human virology_2', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Despite the protection afforded by several important legal instruments, the environment continues to be the silent victim of armed conflicts worldwide. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has conducted over twenty post-conflict assessments since 1999, using state-of-the-art science to determine the environmental impacts of war. From Kosovo to Afghanistan, Sudan and the Gaza Strip, UNEP has found that armed conflict causes significant harm to the environment and the communities that depend on natural resources.

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  • This chapter aims to provide useful information on different extrusions processes, which can be mainly divided into direct and indirect extrusion processes. This also includes basic background on hydrostatic extrusion, extrusions of tubing and production of seamless pipe and tubing. • Principal background and concept of extrusion will be addressed along with the utilisation of mathematical approaches to understand the calculation of extrusion load.

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  • What nature and level of contact is necessary? Consider indirect and direct contact, and if the latter, at what bureaucratic level is contact most appropriate? Would the measure benefit from a communications campaign? What tools and/or communications activities (i.e. newsletter, website, public forums, briefings to the Minister) should be used? The strategy should make clear the intent and logic of consultation with key stakeholders.

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  • CHAPTER 53 AIR HEATING Richard J. Reed North American Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio 53.1 53.2 AIR-HEATING PROCESSES COSTS 1641 1643 53.3 53.4 WARNINGS BENEFITS 1643 1644 53.1 AIR-HEATING PROCESSES Air can be heated by burning fuel or by recovering waste heat from another process. In either case, the heat can be transferred to air directly or indirectly. Indirect air heaters are heat exchangers wherein the products of combustion never contact or mix with the air to be heated. In waste heat recovery, the heat exchanger is termed a recuperator.

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  • Some 529,000 women die each year in delivery and pregnancy – the over- whelming majority in developing countries. While women in industrialized countries face a 1 in 2,800 chance of dying in pregnancy or delivery, the risk in developing regions is 1 in 61. In sub-Saharan Africa it is as high as 1 in 16. This lifetime risk of death ref lects both pregnancy rates and the qual- ity of delivery care associated with each pregnancy. Maternal deaths occur from both direct and indirect complications.

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  • Nitrogen monoxide (NO) is a cytotoxic effector molecule produced by macrophages that results in Fe mobilization from tumour target cells which inhibits DNA synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. It is well known that NO has a high affinity for Fe, and we showed that NO-mediated Fe mobilization is markedly potentiated by glutathione (GSH) generated by the hexose monophosphate shunt [Watts, R.N. & Richardson, D.R. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 4724–4732]. We hypothesized that GSH completes the coordination shell of an NO–Fe complex that is released from the cell.

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  • Increasingly, the ME industry is required to cope with more severe market fluctuations than most other branches of industry. As on of the prime supplying industries of capital goods, it is highly dependent on the investment activity of the purchasing companies, which are highly sensitive to developments in the economy as a whole. This applies above all to industry’s investments in equipment and machinery, into which most ME products flow either directly or indirectly.

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  • There is a clear and urgent need for a national research network. This nation stands to gain considerably from the many direct and indirect benefits that would accrue from an NRN. The OSTP report begins to address the basic issues for an NRN, but it is silent on many important issues, especially those pertaining to the relationship between the NRN and commercial network services. (Nevertheless, the fundamental recommendation for an NRN is sound, as far as it goes.)

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  • Adverse health outcomes of insufficient water are direct in terms of human water requirements for survival, and indirect in terms of lack of access to drinkable water and water suitable for sanitation and hygiene. Poor quality water (as unsafe water), inadequate sanitation, and insufficient hygiene are the major risk factors for diarrheal disease, which is the second leading contributor to the global burden of disease.

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  • Malnutrition in all its forms either directly or indirectly is responsible for approximately half of all deaths worldwide. This applies to perinatal and infectious diseases as well as chronic diseases. Malnutrition accounts for 11% of the global burden of disease, leading to long-term poor health and disability and poor educational and developmental outcomes. Worldwide, by 2010 it was found that about 104 million children under five years of age were underweight and 171 million stunted.

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  • SECTION III COMMUNITY ECOLOGY SPECIES CO-OCCURRING AT A SITE INTERACT TO VARIOUS degrees, both directly and indirectly, in ways that have intrigued ecologists since earliest times. These interactions represent mechanisms that control population dynamics, hence community structure, and also control rates of energy and matter fluxes.

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  • This book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. For information on getting permission for reprints and excerpts, contact Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis, without warranty.

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  • Thus, sibship configuration may influence how much parents invest in each of their child’s education and thus contribute to educational inequality within the family. The mechanisms through which parents exhibit their preference for a specific child may be either allocation of family resources among siblings or a subtle form of economic transfers among the siblings. Most prior studies have focused on the direct parental effect of allocation of family resources, and few studies have examined the indirect parental effect of inter-sibling transfer of family resources.

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  • Insomnia Associated with Neurologic Disorders A variety of neurologic diseases result in sleep disruption through both indirect, nonspecific mechanisms (e.g., pain in cervical spondylosis or low back pain) or by impairment of central neural structures involved in the generation and control of sleep itself. For example, dementia from any cause has long been associated with disturbances in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle, often characterized by nocturnal wandering and an exacerbation of symptomatology at night (so-called sundowning).

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