Individual constraints

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  • We describe a constraint-based tagging approach where individual constraint rules vote on sequences of matching tokens and tags. Disambiguation of all tokens in a sentence is performed at the very end by selecting tags that appear on the path that receives the highest vote. This constraint application paradigm makes the outcome of the disambiguation independent of the rule sequence, and hence relieves the rule developer from worrying about potentially conflicting rule sequencing.

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  • We present a constraint-based morphological disambiguation system in which individual constraints vote on matching morphological parses, and disambiguation of all the tokens in a sentence is performed at the end by selecting parses that receive the highest votes. This constraint application paradigm makes the outcome of the disambiguation independent of the rule sequence, and hence relieves the rule developer from worrying about potentially conflicting rule sequencing.

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  • Dependency analysis of natural language has gained importance for its applicability to NLP tasks. Non-projective structures are common in dependency analysis, therefore we need fine-grained means of describing them, especially for the purposes of machine-learning oriented approaches like parsing. We present an evaluation on twelve languages which explores several constraints and measures on non-projective structures. We pursue an edge-based approach concentrating on properties of individual edges as opposed to properties of whole trees. ...

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  • We present a new grammatical formalism called Constraint Dependency G r a m m a r (CDG) in which every grammatical rule is given as a constraint on wordto-word modifications. CDG parsing is formalized as a constraint satisfaction problem over a finite domain so that efficient constraint-propagation algorithms can be employed to reduce structural ambiguity without generating individual parse trees. The weak generative capacity and the computational complexity of CDG parsing are also discussed.

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  • Urban Ecology is the study of ecosystems that include humans living in cities and urbanizing landscapes. It is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that aims to understand how human and ecological processes can coexist in human-dominated systems and help societies with their efforts to become more sustainable. It has deep roots in many disciplines including sociology, geography, urban planning, landscape architecture, engineering, economics, anthropology, climatology, public health, and ecology.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'ecological engineering principles and practice', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ sinh học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Amplify-forward relaying for multiple antenna multiple relay networks under individual power constraint at each relay EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and

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  • Where the two terms differ is in the imposition by organisations of courteous or forced ritual behaviour on employees – a modern phenomenon. Insincerity is concealed, leading to the whimsical even offensive notion that we are all air hostesses now. There are moral implications here too. Sprezzatura could be aligned to the moral theories of hedonism and egoism – where the focus is on the individual who decides to pursue a working life of fulfilment based on self interest, by the appearance of relaxed competence that may or may not be borne out by actual effectiveness at work....

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  • All projects are subject to limitations and constraints as they must be within scope and adhere to budget, scheduling, and resource requirements. Project planning and documentation are no exception to this rule. There may also be legislative, regulatory, technology, or organizational policy requirements which must be followed as part of communications management. These constraints must be clearly understood and communicated to all stakeholders.

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  • A stakeholder is an individual or a group that has an interest in the program, its outcomes or benefits. Stakeholder engagement is the process of identifying and communicating effectively with those people or groups who have an interest or influence on the project’s outcome. Effective communication with key stakeholders, both internal and external, is essential to the program’s success. The development of the Stakeholder Engagement Strategy addresses the vital role of engaging, informing and managing stakeholders in the achievement of public policy.

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  • These are not issues which can be lightly dismissed; however, it is clear that any debate on human dignity needs to separate the various elements of the debate in order to consider whether opposition to cloning stems from concern for human dignity or respect for divine dignity. As well as to determine whether it is designed to protect the individual that may be cloned or the society whose sense of personal and collective identity might be challenged by the concept of sharing the world with cloned individuals.

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  • This systematic evidence on barriers to the use of financial services allows re- searchers and policy makers to understand reasons for nonuse and to prioritize and design policy interventions accordingly. But because at this point the data are cross-sectional, they cannot be used to determine what impact removing these self-reported barriers would have. Measuring that impact requires rigor- ous evaluation and is beyond the scope of this report.

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  • To effectively perform data mining, however, we cannot naively consider all candidate instantiations, since the number of such instantiations is exponential in the number of variables. We provide algorithms and heuristics that ex- ploit the granularity system and the given constraints to reduce the hypothesis space for the pattern matching task. The global approach offers an effective procedure to dis- cover patterns of events that occur frequently in a sequence satisfying specific temporal relationships.

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  • Research Article Rate-Optimized Power Allocation for DF-Relayed OFDM Transmission under Sum and Individual Power Constraints

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  • This paper explores how the efficiency of Internet search is changing the way Americans find romantic partners. We use a new data source, the How Couples Meet and Stay Together survey. Results show that family and grade school have been steadily declining in their influence over the dating market for 60 years. In the past 15 years, the rise of the Internet has partly displaced not only family and school, but also neighborhood, friends and the workplace as venues for meeting partners. The Internet increasingly allows Americans to meet and form relationships with perfect strangers, i.e.

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  • In the U.K. the Household Net Worth data are collected on an annual basis . The latest data available are over the year 2011. Individual households in the U.K owned £4.30 trillion in non-financial assets in 2011 and another £4.28 trillion in financial assets in 2011. They also owed £1.54 trillion in financial liabilities. This left them with a net worth level of £ 7.04 trillion. Taking into account net government debt - national and local council ones- individual households owned £6.84 trillion.

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  • The reason for emphasising the study of the complete system is the strong interaction between most individual items. For example, it is no use selecting a chair of sufficiently low height adjustment to allow small people to rest their feet on the floor if the work surface is of a fixed height which is too high for the resulting seated height. In fact, for work at fixed surfaces, the benefits of seat height adjustment are largely lost, as shown in Figure 1. For such cases, the purchase of footrests becomes essential, whereas footrests are not needed...

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  • Economics is the study of how individuals and societies make choices subject to constraints. The need to make choices arises from scarcity. From the perspective of society as a whole, scarcity refers to the limitations placed on the production of goods and services because factors of production are finite. From the perspective of the individual, scarcity refers to the limitations on the consumption of goods and services because of limited of personal income and wealth.

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  • Another interesting feature is the responsibility of the project manager. The Guide defines project manager simply as "An individual responsible for managing aproject." The Software Engineering Institute goes further and calls it "The role with total business responsibility for an entire project; the individual who directs, controls, administers, and regulates a project . . . [and] is the individual ultimately responsible to the end user.

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  • I have worked with many people—clients, attorneys and international examiners, fellow transfer pricing economists and others—over the years, all of whom have contributed greatly to my understanding of the issues addressed in this book. I thank all of these individuals for their professionalism, their willingness to share their knowledge, and their friendship. I would also like to thank several people for their extremely helpful and insightful comments on this manuscript. Confidential- ity constraints prevent me from mentioning anyone by name.

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