The Affordable Care Act establishes Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) to provide
individuals and small business employees with access to health insurance coverage beginning January
An Exchange is an entity that both facilitates the purchase of Qualified Health Plans (QHP)
by qualified individuals and provides for the establishment of a Small Business Health Options Program
(SHOP), consistent with Affordable Care Act 1311(b) and 45 CFR 155.20.
An important contribution to the debates surrounding the evolution of the European welfare state model, this volume investigates the role that “ideational leadership” has played in the passing of structural reforms in the change-resistant German welfare state. Based on in-depth case studies of individual reforms in health care, pensions, and unemployment insurance since the early 1990s, Stiller illuminates the ways in which Germany has made the transition from its Bismarckian past to a hybrid welfare state....
Mr. Adams is descended from one of the first families which founded the colony of the Massachusets Bay in
1630. He applied himself early to the study of the laws of his country; and no sooner entered upon the practice
thereof, but he drew the attention, admiration, and esteem of his countrymen, on account of his eminent
abilities and probity of character.
In 1996 the debate regarding the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant
Responsibility Act centered on the necessity to screen foreigneducated
health care professionals seeking employment in the United
States. The focused and controversial discussion also raised cogent
points regarding the qualifications of an entity to perform such an
Based on its established track record in providing credentialing
services to a variety of health occupations, CGFNS International was
named in the Act to provide health professions screening when the law
The Handbook of State Government Administration considers the range of administrative
and management practices employed by state governments in the United
States. These practices are discussed and analyzed from both conceptual and
applied perspectives. Chapters have been written by individuals with outstanding
academic backgrounds and substantial experience dealing with administrative
and management issues in substantive policy areas.
1 Some Problematic Issues in the Thai Processing
It is obvious that the most fundamental semantic unit in a language is the word. Words are explicitly identified in those languages with word boundaries. In Thai, there is no word boundary. Thai words are implicitly recognized and in many cases, they depend on the individual judgement. This causes a lot of difficulties in the Thai language processing.
Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to: Demonstrate how taxes influence basic business, investment, personal, and political decisions; discuss what constitutes a tax and the general objectives of taxes; describe the different tax rate structures and calculate a tax; identify the various federal, state, and local taxes; apply appropriate criteria to evaluate alternate tax systems.
The purpose of this chapter is: Describe the requirements and process to elect S corporation status; explain the events that terminate the S corporation election; describe operating issues relating to S corporation accounting periods and methods, and explain income and loss allocations and separately stated items;...
In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Describe the primary types of state and local taxes, determine whether a business has sales and use tax nexus and calculate its sales tax withholding responsibilities, identify whether a business has income tax nexus and determine its state income tax liabilities.
This chapter considers what is rational behavior. At the heart of the investigation is the principle of diminishing marginal utility. It states that, after some point, the marginal utility received from each additional unit of a good decreases with each unit consumed.
The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (hereinafter referred to collectively as "Parties" and individually as "Party"),
Desiring to establish and develop mutually beneficial and equitable economic and trade relations on the basis of mutual respect for their respective independence and sovereignty;
Acknowledging that the adoption of and compliance with international trade norms and standards by the Parties will aid the development of mutually beneficial trade relations, and should be the underlying basis of those relations...
Green fluorescence. Further, the orange fluorescence can
be used to detect second important fluorescing photopigment respectively phycoeritrin.
Phycoeritrin is typical in many Synechococcus spp. and some picoeukaryotes, so
Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and picoeukaryotes can easy be discriminated in a plot Red vs.
Orange fluorescence (Figure 3).
Asset prices are determined by investors’ risk preferences and by the distributions
of assets’ risky future payments. Economists refer to these two bases
of prices as investor "tastes" and the economy’s "technologies" for generating
asset returns. A satisfactory theory of asset valuation must consider how individuals
allocate their wealth among assets having different future payments.
This chapter explores the development of expected utility theory, the standard
approach for modeling investor choices over risky assets....
The source of project ideas may come from a variety
of sources, most importantly from prospective
implementing partners (either partner governments,
non-state actors or multi-lateral or regional
development agencies). Local ownership of, and
commitment to, potential projects is a key quality
Furthermore, project ideas should be drawn from the
priorities and targets identified in the relevant
Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative
In response to such changes we need a multifaceted, multi-agency
approach based on strengthening individuals, families and
communities, while at the same time improving the infrastructure and
access to services. Midwives and midwifery services have a particular
part to play in this. We could go a long way to achieving improvements
in health and social outcomes by giving more people, particularly
women and children, better life chances8.
Seventh, the study is the only one which gives important policy implications,
reporting them in turn in each empirical chapter. This is the first study on Thailand which
discusses the effect of the Thai government’s encouragement of individual savings by
adopting special fund styles which give favourable tax treatment. We reveal the policy
implications of this action by assessing these specific funds in a separate group from general
funds, before comparing and discussing the results from the two groups. ...
Defense is a state of mind. It is, in the opinion of
this author and many other coaches, the great
equalizer. Our philosophy has been developed
over a period of time and it is being constantly refined to
this day. This philosophy is not the only way to coach
and teach defense, but it may give you ideas you will
want to incorporate or think about adding to your own
defensive philosophy. We all seek information that can
help to broaden our horizons, and I hope some of these
methods and ideas will help or encourage you to innovate
and try different things....
With a simple gland through the United States history, it is easily seen that propaganda is
no new strategy to persuade the common man or woman’s thoughts. During elections, during
war or peace, propaganda has been used by businesses and our government. Politicians like Ike
Eisenhower used cartoons to try and get him elected. The cartoon diverted people’s attention
away from whether he was a good president or not. This nearly the same idea as having a
popular person tell people that the product shown is great. They want people to think “Of if so
and so uses that, it...
To deal with the lack of reported information, we propose a novel approach to obtain
the exposure contained in the net position in interest-rate derivatives. We specify a state
space model of a bank’s derivatives trading strategy. We then use Bayesian methods to
estimate the bank’s strategy using the joint distribution of interest rates, bank fair and
notional values as well as bid-ask spreads. Intuitively, the identiﬁcation of the bank’s
strategy relies on whether the net position (per dollar notional) gains or loses in value
over time, together with the history of rates.
Each generation has unique expectations, experiences, generational history, lifestyles,
values, and demographics that influence their buying behaviors. Accordingly, many companies
are reaching out to multi-generational consumers and trying to understand and gain the attention
of these diverse buyers. Multi-generational marketing is the practice of appealing to the unique
needs and behaviors of individuals within more than one specific generational group, with a
generation being a group of individuals born and living about the same time .