Industrial and urban

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  • Sewage sludge as an uncalled for product of wastewater treatment poses the challenge to society of disposing of it, but at the same time gives us the opportunity of beneficial use by closing the cycle of nutrients: sludge derived from agricultural activity must return to soil if a sustainable and ecologically sound management of these materials is desirable (SEQUI et al. 2000). At present the major ways of disposing of sewage sludges are deposition, landfill and incineration, only part of the sludges are used in agriculture. ...

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  • Active in the area attacked by a large. The last chapter presents a simulation study collective behavior in disaster. I would like to express my special thanks to Mr. Igor Babic, Ivana Lorkovic her, and she Ivana ZEC. Last but not least, I want to thank the entire staff of Intech - Open Access Publishing, especially Mr. Igor Babic, professional support and technical support in all steps of the process that led to the realization of this book.

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  • For the analysis of biological samples two blood samples were taken, one with 5 ml heparin for the determination of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and pseudo cholinesterase (PChE) by the technique of Michel and Aldrige (Vorhaus and Kark, 1953) and another of 5 ml without anticoagulant for the analysis of OC pesticides in serum.

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  • Today there is not a single aspect of the world that can escape the scrutiny of environmental analysis, and business activities stand at the crux of many issues. Some of the issues that today’s executives need to understand to be environmentally literate include: air, water, and land pollution; the production and disposal of hazardous wastes; solid waste disposal; chemical and nuclear spills and accidents; global warming and the greenhouse effect; ozone depletion; deforestation and desertification; biodiversity, and overpopulation.

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  • In addition to visual art, the conference also covered a topic of special interest in visual neuroaesthetics: facial beauty. Other peo- ple’s faces constitute highly relevant stimuli for humans, and face perception is mediated by distributed neural regions (Ishai, 2007), including the extrastriate cortex, which is specially dedicated to processing individual identity, and the superior temporal sulcus, which processes facial movements involved in speech and direct- ing gaze.

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  • The industry approach to environmental issues has moved from ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions, towards a pollu- tion prevention strategy. This strategy requires an integrated, holistic view of activities. Tools have been developed to assist management, including cleaner production, life cycle assessment and industrial ecolo- gy. Each of these looks at the life cycle of the product or service, to identify where the major environmental issues or problems may arise and where the most cost- effective solutions can be developed.

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  • The most spectacular changes in the recent decades have been a radical change in bleaching technology, that minimised the use of chlorine and greatly reduced or avoided altogether the emissions of dioxins (Reinstaller, 2005), and the increase in the use of re- cycled paper as an input in the paper production process. Although less spectacular and more gradually, the pulp and paper industry in Europe has also improved its performance in other environmental dimensions (Berkhout, 2005).

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  • Several European cases highlight to varying degrees the roles of direct and indirect crossborder credit in the course of the global credit boom of the 2000s (Graph 1). Direct crossborder credit to non-banks in Ireland (dark shaded area), for example, grew at roughly 40% year on year in the three years prior to the crisis (centre panel), 10 percentage points above the rate for domestic bank credit. Moreover, banks in Ireland drew on indirect cross-border credit (left-hand panel, dashed brown line) to support their domestic lending.

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  • The work programme also covers the complementary policy objective of addressing specific global health issues. Greater focus will be placed on antimicrobial resistance and continuing to address emerging epidemics. In antimicrobial resistance the aim will be to further focus on understanding of the evolution and the transfer of antibiotic resistance as well as antimicrobial drug resistance in Gram negative infections, the development of tools to control microbial biofilms and the development of multi-analyte diagnostics.

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  • The biological changes underlying the transition process from gingival health to early inflammatory changes involve local increase in vascular permeability, edema and the recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) (Delima and Van Dyke 2003). Acquired immune response becomes involved once antigen-presenting cells interact with immunocompetent cells, such as T and B lymphocytes, leading to the expansion of antibody-secreting plasma cells and the development of the chronic lesion (Gemmell and Seymour 2004).

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  • Each section includes chapters with interesting topics. Authors spread around the world have been resolved so we are delighted that this book represents research in promising high. Material properties are described in more creative ways for the standard components or biological materials and sources of natural materials. Commonly used materials such as glass, carbon, epoxy resin, concrete, ... described the characteristics improve or construction work. Waste materials use and recycling is the next step and it is a important way how to save resources and our environment....

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  • The dynamic nature of the Jepara industrial complex also affects the Indonesian wood products chain, attracting timber produced from forests located throughout Central Java (Figure 1) and beyond, including the outer islands. Thousands of trucks and pickups bring logs into the district from distant places, including state and community forest plantations.

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  • Since 2000, the shrimp industry expands at a fast rate in the coastal areas of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp farming is known for its negative impact on the coastal environment. However, other human interventions like agriculture and urbanization also deteriorate the coastal environment. The land cover changes between 1968 and 2003 were determined and analyzed for the Cai Nuoc district, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam, using photos from 1968, 1992 (aerial photographs), 1997/98 (Spot) and 2003 (Landsat).

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  • Ever since the Industrial Revolution, industrial activities have been accompanied by a problem: industrial waste. The commensurate increase in industrialization, urbanization and population growth are leading to production of enormous quantities of industrial wastes that may cause degradation in environment and health hazards. On the other hand, the desire for a healthy environment increases, which leads to the need for better ways of waste minimization, pollution prevention and better use of resources in achieving the required industrial and environmental standards....

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  • On the other hand, salinity affects 7-9 % of the world’s land area (Szabolcs, 1994), and the area is increasing (Ghassemi et al., 1995). Nowadays, one of the major technological goals of the energy production is the replacement of the fossil-based fuel for biofuel, mainly due to environmental issues. Bearing that in mind, it is mandatory to investigate the effect of water deficit and salinity stress in plant species with high potential for application in large scale production of nonfossil based fuels....

    pdf232p conquynho32 14-09-2012 36 5   Download

  • In a world where the population is expected to rise to 10 billion by the turn of the century, accelerating urbanisation and the increasing the demand for food and energy; taking action to secure sufficient water of acceptable quality for humans and nature is as urgent as ever. Climate change is projected to aggravate water stress in many regions, especially where water is already scarce and where the demand for water is growing rapidly. Increased frequency of floods is also projected.

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  • Many policy makers and researchers believe that voluntary cost pooling of employees across small firms will make insurance affordable to these firms. This is possible because, on average, expected costs of employees at small firms are only slightly higher than large firms. We show that risk pooling across firms may not work as well as this conventional wisdom would suggest, because of large between-firm heterogeneity in employee characteristics at small firms.

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  •  Ho Chi Minh City is a one of the biggest cities of Vietnam. Before 1945, there were about  400,000 inhabitants living in the city. During the last two decades, it became the biggest industrial  and commercial center of the country. According to the statistics in 2005, its population was about  6.2 million people. In the suburban areas of the city, particularly in the northern part, agricultural  activities  produce  the  main  income  of  these  local  residents.

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  • Diverse human-produced organic chemicals can enter surface and groundwater through human activities, including pesticide use and industrial processes, and as breakdown products of other chemicals (Carr and Neary 2008). Many of these pollutants, including pesticides and other non-metallic toxins, are used globally, persist in the environment, and can be transported long ranges to regions where they have never been produced (UNEP 2009).

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  • Smaller particulates related to combustion are much more dangerous because they are inhaled deeply into the lungs (Cifuentes et al. 2000, Laden et al. 2000). But note that even if particulate matter from soil is excluded, industry is still a relatively minor source of PM emissions, accounting for just 14% of remaining emissions. Even within the industry subsector, maquiladoras are not the leading source of two of the SNIFF air pollutants—PM and SO2. That distinction belongs to small-scale brick kilns (Table 2).

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