Ever since the Industrial Revolution, industrial activities have been accompanied by a
problem: industrial waste. The commensurate increase in industrialization,
urbanization and population growth are leading to production of enormous quantities
of industrial wastes that may cause degradation in environment and health hazards.
On the other hand, the desire for a healthy environment increases, which leads to the
need for better ways of waste minimization, pollution prevention and better use of
resources in achieving the required industrial and environmental standards....
Carmago et al. (1992) noted that short-term flow
fluctuations, low concentration of dissolved oxygen and also the siltation of suspended
inorganic matter caused by industrial discharge contribute greatly to the changes in
sediment and directly affect the structure of macroinvertebrate community. The high
siltation of suspended inorganic matter caused significant reductions in taxa richness and
abundance of zoobenthic communities as it changes the natural structure of the substratum.
In the United States industry is the greatest source of pollution, accounting for more than half the volume of all water pollution and for the most deadly pollutants. Some 370,000 manufacturing facilities use huge quantities of freshwater to carry away wastes of many kinds. The waste-bearing water, or effluent, is discharged into streams, lakes, or oceans, which in turn disperse the polluting substances. In its National Water Quality Inventory, reported to Congress in 1996, the U.S.
Sodium concentration in
irrigation water replaces calcium by the process of Base Exchange, therefore reduces soil
permeability. Furthermore, excess salinity in groundwater used for irrigation decreased
plants osmotic activity and interfere water absorption and nutrients from the soil.
Nearly 5% of groundwater from the study site exceeds the desirable limit (1000 mg L-1) of
chloride. The natural source of chloride is due to the weathering of phosphate mineral
apatite present in granites.
Already about two decades ago, Robert Lucas (1990) asked: “Why Doesn’t Capital Flow
from Rich to Poor Countries?”, wondering why only very little capital in net term was
flowing from the industrial world to developing economies. In the past years, this trend has
even aggravated: Nowadays, in many cases, net capital flows have reversed and are now
flowing from developing and emerging countries towards the rich world, especially towards
the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and Spain.
The formation of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
(PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), known collectively as dioxins, is a
recognized concern for cement manufacturing. Dioxins have the potential to form if
chlorine is present in the input fuel or raw materials. Formation can be repressed,
however, by the high temperatures and long residence times that are standard in cement
kilns (Karstensen 2008).
The ancient carving industry in Jepara is famous locally and worldwide. Its reputation has attracted
many related economic activities linked to wood production and processing, especially furniture
making. Today, Jepara is a typical example of what is called an ‘industrial district’
in which growth in
one sector (furniture manufacturing) has attracted thousands of small to medium-sized industries
to the Kabupaten (administrative district)2
. These in turn have created an opportunity for further
subsidiary activities and industries.
Rather than construct the surface itself,
sectioning uses a series of profiles, the edges of which
follow lines of surface geometry. The modeling
software's sectioning or contouring commands can
almost instantaneously cut parallel sections through
objects at designated intervals. This effectively
streamlines the process of making serialized, parallel
sections. Architects have experimented with sectional
assemblies as a way to produce both surface
Tobacco smoking mostly in the form of cigarette smoking has been accused of impairing
microcirculatory system and the relevant changes in vascular formations and functions
may have a negative influence on the immune and inflammatory reactions in periodontal
tissues. Smokers were reported to have significantly less number of vessels in inflamed
gingival tissue compared to non-smokers (Rezavandi et al. 2002). Long-term smoking has
an established negative effect on the vasculature of periodontal tissues.
Industrialization has become an important factor to the development of a country’s economy,
through the establishment of plants and factories. However, the waste or by-products
discharged from them are severely disastrous to the environment consists various kind of
contaminant which contaminate the surface water, ground water and soil. There are a number
of reasons the waste are not safely treated. One of the reasons is mainly due to the lacking of
highly efficient and economic treatment technology.
Through the studies, we can deduce that most of the industrial discharge carries toxic
substances. Due to the presence of high amount of toxic, carcinogen, and teratogen of
metals, researchers are highly concerned with its effect on the environment and health of
mankind. Rigorous investigations are currently being carried out to study the consequences
of the contamination on the surface water, groundwater, and surface land due to industrial
In consultation with many local organisations and groups the Environment Agency has produced Catchment Flood
Management Plans (CFMPs) covering the main 68 catchments in England. These documents set out the strategic
context for managing flood risk in a catchment, helping decision makers by identifying the policy options
being adopted to manage flood risks. They also help form the position we take in our work to manage assets,
watercourses, flood forecasting, and to help land use planning and development.
This book contains chapters on nanocomposites for engineering hard materials for high performance aircraft, rocket and automobile use, using laser pulses to form metal coatings on glass and quartz, and also tungsten carbide-cobalt nanoparticles using high voltage discharges. A major section of this book is largely devoted to chapters outlining and applying analytic methods needed for studies of nanocomposites. As such, this book will serve as good resource for such analytic methods.
The pH values will bring effects in flora and
fauna nearby, change the taste of water and lead to heavy corrosion in pipe lines. High
conductivity naturally indicates the presence of ionic substances dissolved in the river
water. However, the result showed that 90% of the study site exceeded the data reported for
non-contaminated rivers due to excessive metal ions within the water. At the site nearer to
kaolin industry the conductivity is 852 times higher than the non-polluted study site. The
industrial discharge also changed the hardness in river water.
For the comparison of the share of biomass within the microbial
community samples were collected on monthly basis from the Adriatic Sea (N = 110) from
one coastal (ST103) and one open sea (CA009) site during 2010. Seawater samples from the
Adriatic Sea sites and offshore site in the English Channel were collected by Niskin bottles
through vertical profile. At four shore sites from the English Channel samples were
collected manually from the surface. All samples were fixed with formaldehyde (2% final
concentration), kept in the dark at 4 ºC and analyzed within two weeks.
The environmental challenges we face today include all of the same ones
that we faced more than 30 years ago at the first Earth Day celebration in 1970.
In spite of the unflagging efforts of environmental professionals (and others),
environmental problems remain. Many large metropolitan areas continue to be
plagued by smog, beaches are periodically polluted by oil spills, and many running
waters (rivers and streams) still suffer the effects of poorly treated sewage
and industrial discharges....
Yadav et al. (2007) studied on fertilizer industrial discharge showed that some components
in the discharge may interact with each other and produce toxic to aquatic organisms. For
instance, the interaction between dissolved oxygen and ammonia changed the respiratory
physiology in fresh water fish. In addition, results showed that the toxicity of the effluent in
fish depends on concentration and duration of exposure.
Due to their low aqueous solubilities, the PCBs and PAHs lay on the surface of soils and
waters. PCBs and PAHs adsorb strongly to the organic fraction of soils (Girvin & Scott, 1997;
Hiller et al., 2011). Soils contaminated with PCBs and PAHs are transported directly or
indirectly by rivers to the water reservoir and are subsequently converted into the bed
sediments. Therefore, soils could be considered as the primary sinks for these organic
contaminants. PCBs and PAHs are persistent in the environment, resistant to degradation
process, and accumulate in food chain.
distortion in the cell organelles and inhibit the activity of various enzymes (Valarmathi &
Azariah, 2003; Yadav et al., 2007), which may greatly disturb the physiological state of the
exposed living organism. The heavy metals present in the fertilizer industry discharge are
usually in dissolved state which could easily be uptaken by fish and enter human food
chain. There have been studies showed that metals will cause damage to the human kidney
and liver even at low concentration.
Carmago et al. (1992) found that the rivers nearer industrial discharge point have adverse
impact to the environment as well as to macrobenthic communities. Toxic contaminants
from surface runoff, sewage discharges and industrial discharge have caused negative
impacts towards the freshwater macrobenthic communities. The presence of substance
chemical such as ammonia, chlorine, cyanide, metals, PCBs, pesticides and phenols would
caused a decline pattern on the number of species and changes in the species composition.