Industrial effluents

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  • Ever since the Industrial Revolution, industrial activities have been accompanied by a problem: industrial waste. The commensurate increase in industrialization, urbanization and population growth are leading to production of enormous quantities of industrial wastes that may cause degradation in environment and health hazards. On the other hand, the desire for a healthy environment increases, which leads to the need for better ways of waste minimization, pollution prevention and better use of resources in achieving the required industrial and environmental standards....

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  • In the United States industry is the greatest source of pollution, accounting for more than half the volume of all water pollution and for the most deadly pollutants. Some 370,000 manufacturing facilities use huge quantities of freshwater to carry away wastes of many kinds. The waste-bearing water, or effluent, is discharged into streams, lakes, or oceans, which in turn disperse the polluting substances. In its National Water Quality Inventory, reported to Congress in 1996, the U.S.

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  • It is estimated that approximately one-third of the world’s population are using groundwater for drinking purposes. Pollution of ground water due to industrial effluents is a major issue (Vasanthavigar et al., 2011). Poor groundwater quality brings negative impact to human health and plant growth. In developing countries like India, it is estimated that around 80% of all diseases are directly related to poor drinking water quality and unhygienic conditions (Olajire & Imeokparia, 2001; Vasanthavigar et al., 2011).

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  • Textile industry is a leading industry for most countries, such as China, Singapore, UK, Bangladesh, Italy, Turkey etc. But, environmental pollution is one of the main results of this industry. Parralel to usage of huge amounts of water ad chemicals, the textile dyeing and finishing industry is one of the major polluters among industrial sectors, in the scope of volume and the chemical composition of the discharged effluent (Pagga & Brown, 1986).

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  • The study conducted by Hiller et al. (2011) to investigate the concentrations, distributions, and hazards of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCBs are used mainly as coolant and electronic industries (capacitors, transformers), paints, sealants for wood, cutting and lubricating fluids, plasticizers, and as dielectric fluids. Therefore, at the former site of PCB manufacturing area in Slovakia, high concentrations of PCBs are detected in soils, sediments, humans, and wildlife (Kocan et al., 2001; Petrik et al., 2001; Hiller et al., 2011)....

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  • This book is a companion volume to two published in 2011 by INTECH titled “Desalination, Trends and Technologies” and “Expanding Issues in Desalination”. The term “desalination” used in this series is in the broadest sense of the removal of dissolved, suspended, visible and invisible impurities in seawater, brackish water and wastewater.

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  • A number of barriers stand in the way of mainstream adoption of personal manufacturing technologies that discourage widespread home, school and business use. A chief barrier is the “chicken and egg” paradox, where today’s current consumer and education markets for personal fabrication technologies is too small to attract the attention of companies, discouraging company investment in creating products and services, hence failing to attract more consumers.

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  • Vascular dysfunction may also reduce oxygen delivery to gingival tissue. Pocket oxygen tension was reported to be significantly lower in smokers than non-smokers providing support for the negative effects of smoking on vascular system (Hanioka et al. 2000). Evidence from both human and experimental studies suggests that smoking has a long-term chronic effect, and its effect is not simply a vasoconstriction.

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  • TIêu chuẩn vIệt nam tcvn 6984: 2001 Chất luợng nuớc − Tiêu chuẩn nước thải công nghiệp thải vào vực nước sông dùng cho mục đích bảo vệ thuỷ sinh Water quality – Standards for industrial effluents discharged into rivers using for protection of aquatic life 1 Phạm vi áp dụng 1.1 Tiêu chuẩn này qui định chi tiết giá trị giới hạn của các thông số và nồng độ của các chất ô nhiễm trong nước thải công nghiệp theo tải lượng và theo lưu lượng nước của sông tiếp nhận.

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  • However, China’s industry is dependent on non-wood fibers (largely agricultural residues) at a 3:1 ratio over wood fiber. This suggests a concentration of many smaller operations. In fact, China’s rapid agricultural growth since 1978 provided fiber for eight-fold growth in the production of smaller papermills between 1984 and 1992 (CTAPI (1993)). The smaller mills have been rapid innovators, but they remain especially environmentally intrusive. They are dependent on pollution control technologies that are not as effective for non-wood fibers.

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  • Forty undergraduate students from three different faculties were recruited for the study. Using official IELTS Test results obtained by the students at the beginning of their study in Australia and towards the end, as well as interviews with most of the students, the study investigated patterns of improvement, as well as lack of improvement among the 40 students. While most of the students in the study did achieve a higher score in the IELTS Test taken towards the end of their study in Australia, only a small number were able to achieve an Overall score of 7.0, with at least...

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  • This book emphasizes on new applications of electroplating with consideration for environmental aspect and experimental design. Written by experienced expert from various countries, the authors come from academia and electroplating industrial players. Here, a very detailed explanation to the new application of the electroplating is followed by a solution of the environmental issue caused by the electroplating process and concluded by experimental design for optimization of electro deposition processes. ...

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  • In its report to the G7 titled Report of the Financial Stability Forum on Enhancing Market and Institutional Resilience, 1 the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) requested the Joint Forum to conduct a stocktaking of the uses of external credit ratings by its member authorities in the banking, securities and insurance sectors. The request also suggested that authorities review whether their regulations and/or supervisory policies unintentionally give credit ratings an official seal of approval that discourages investors from performing their own due diligence.

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  • In this section we look at data concerning 10-year government bond yields. Although our main interest is the default risk, this presents only one channel through which fiscal policies can affect long-term yields. There are other channels operating through monetary-fiscal interaction, which should be reflected in the evolution of yields. Therefore we start our descriptive analysis in this section by looking at yields, forward rates and inflation expectations at a weekly frequency. Then we move to an analysis of interest rate swap spreads, at a weekly and daily frequency.

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  • The accounting treatment of investments in property, plant and equipment and intangible assets entails the use of estimates to determine the useful life for depreciation and amortization purposes and to assess fair value at their acquisition dates for assets acquired in business combinations. Determining useful life requires making estimates in connection with future technological developments and alternative uses for assets.

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  • There is currently no independent authoritative statement on the nature and importance of differences in content of nutrients and other nutritionally relevant substances (nutrients and other substances) in organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs. This systematic review of the available published literature was designed to seek to determine the size and relevance to health of any differences in content of nutrients and other substances in organically and conventionally produced crops and livestock products.

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  • Information -- or more precisely, better information -- can be viewed much like any other commodity in that it is costly to acquire and provides benefits to the user. The goal is to identify the kinds of situations in which improvements in data or methods are likely to yield the greatest net benefit. From an economic standpoint, information itself has little intrinsic value. Instead, information acquires value when it facilitates optimizing behavior. That is, better information can lead to changes in actions, changes that themselves create value.

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  • Ennore Creek becomes the pollution point in Bay of Bengal which influences the marine resources and productivity of the region. This coastal belt in the neighboring areas of the city is viewed as dumping sites for industrial effluents and disposing domestic waste (Arunagiri et al., 1998). The natural wealth of the creek is now being eroded to mere sewage channel (Jayaprakash, 2003). The Ennore Thermal Power Plant uses the river waters as coolant and lets out the warm water, in the Ennore Creek.

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  • A more engaging movie experience depends on sitting closer to the screen. But how close is close? The answer varies by screen size. The same viewing distance that is “close” for a 70-foot screen is “far” for a 20-foot screen. To account for screens of different sizes, we need a special way to measure viewing distance. That’s why engineers consider viewing distance as a multiple of Picture Height (PH). Based on widely-accepted measures for the threshold of visual acuity, 2K presentation will satisfy audience members with 20/20 vision who sit at distances of 3.

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  • It is likely that with climate change (which could lead to increased rainfall, river flows, and higher coastal storm surges) and development pressures, flood risk in England is going to increase in the future, with potentially the most significant changes likely to happen in the latter half of the century. The Environment Agency has prepared a Long-term investment strategy that will allow us to understand future levels of risk and what investment may be needed to manage it over the next 25 years and beyond.

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