Industrial material production and processing of energy

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  • On close examination, the glowing promise of coal quickly turns to ash. Coal mining remains a deadly and environmentally destructive industry. Nearly forty percent of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year comes from coal-fired power plants. In the last two decades, air pollution from coal plants has killed more than half a million Americans. In this eye-opening call to action, Goodell explains the costs and consequences of America's addiction to coal and discusses how we can kick the habit....

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  • In 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) established a group of seven industries designated as Industries of the Future (IOF). These industries were selected for their high energy use and large waste generation. The original IOF included the aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metalcasting, petroleum refining, and steel industries. Each industry was asked to provide a future vision and a road map detailing the research required to realize its vision.

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  • Heat treatment and surface engineering are seen as crucial elements in the design and manufacture of strategic components in a wide range of market sectors and industries including air, sea and land transportation, energy production, mining, defense or agriculture. This book offers a broad review of recent global developments in an application of thermal and thermochemical processing to modify the microstructure and properties of a wide range of engineering materials.

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  • This book covers a number of topics in heat and mass transfer processes for a variety of industrial applications. The research papers provide information and guidelines in terms of theory, mathematical modeling and experimental findings in many research areas relevant to the design of industrial processes and equipment. The equipment includes air heaters, cooling towers, chemical system vaporization, high temperature polymerization and hydrogen production by steam reforming.

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  • In the current five-year plan (1991-1995), China plans to place greatest efforts on developing infrastructure, particularly thermoelectric and hydropower installations, new railway systems, large deep-sea ports, a national phone network, and food processing and chemical plants. Local governments also have their own blue prints for local construction besides the central government integrative plan. For example, Guangxi province has 24 new and rebuilt major projects in 1992.

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  • In addition to the aforementioned direct benefits of using alternative fuels for cement manufacturing, there are numerous life-cycle benefits and avoided costs that are realized. Alternative fuels are essentially the waste products of other industrial or agricultural processes, and due to their sheer volume and potentially their toxicity, they pose a major solid waste management challenge in many countries.

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  • The ancient carving industry in Jepara is famous locally and worldwide. Its reputation has attracted many related economic activities linked to wood production and processing, especially furniture making. Today, Jepara is a typical example of what is called an ‘industrial district’ 1 in which growth in one sector (furniture manufacturing) has attracted thousands of small to medium-sized industries to the Kabupaten (administrative district)2 . These in turn have created an opportunity for further subsidiary activities and industries.

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  • Recent experiences from carrying out Design for Assembly (DFA) and Design for Manufacture (DFM) product studies in industry have reinforced the authors’ belief that consideration of manufacturing problems at the design stage is the major means available for improving product quality, reducing manufacturing costs and increasing productivity. In the second edition, as well as providing further information to help select processes for components and the joining of components, we have included data on assembly process selection and costing.

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  • Recent advents in laser technology and discoveries in laser physics have enabled their very new and exciting applications. Some of them cover production of new materials: nano-particles, periodic structures in nano-scale, and thin films. Others allowed better understanding of laser-matter interaction when sample is subjected to intense laser pulses of various time duration, shape in space and time domains as well as different spectral components contained in a pulse.

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  • The internode of solid bamboo has significantly higher ash, 1% NaOH, alcohol- toluene and hot water solubles than the nodes [Mabilangan et al. 2002]. However, differences between the major chemical composition of node and internode fraction of bamboo are small [Scurlock 2000]; neither the number of nodes nor the length of internode segments would be critical to the utilization of bamboo for energy conversion, chemical production, or as a building material. Fujji et al. [1993] investigated the chemistry of the immature culm of a moso- bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel).

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  • Customers expect manufacturers to provide excellent quality, reliable delivery and competitive pricing. This demands that the manufacturer’s machines and processes are highly reliable. But what does the term ’highly reliable’ really mean? Certainly, with manufacturing, process and service industries becoming progressively dependent on the reliability of fewer but more sophisticated machines and processes, it means that poor equipment operating performance is no longer affordable or acceptable.

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  • Some energy crop species are rich in toxic chemicals (such as allelochemicals in Jatropha). These toxic oilseed crops can enter the food chain inmanyways. Research studies on the toxicity have highlighted the potential negative impacts on the ecosystem, including other plantsthatmightgrowinthevicinity. Pesticidesimpacttheenvironmentatseverallevels(fromproductionoffertilizerstocultivation ofenergycrops).Studiesshow that theenvironmental footprint iscomparatively largerduring the cultivation process.

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  • All plans of central and local governments focus on the infrastructural construction, such as energy, transportation and communication, and food processing plants. These developments require new technology, new equipment, new machinery, and new materials, but at present these needs cannot be met internally, either in terms of quantity or quality; they must be met by imports.

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  • For millennia, advances in human progress have been tied to our ability to protect ourselves from the harmful effects of the wastes we produce—ranging from human waste to the organic and inorganic by-products of everyday living. Across the world, cultures learned to bury their dead away from their homes and to burn their waste or make certain that it was carried away by streams and rivers flowing downstream from their homes. Those cultures that learned this most effectively thrived. When the industrial revolution took place in the nineteenth century, rivers again enabled progress.

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