It is generally accepted that the gap between the earnings of unskilled and semi-skilled workers on the one hand, and skilled and highly skilled workers, on the other, narrowed in South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s. This paper investigates whether the gap between the real earnings of highly skilled and low-skilled workers in the formal sector of the South African economy continued to narrow after this country’s transition to democracy.
Lecture Principles of Microeconomics - Chapter 16 "Challenge to market effectiveness 6: Inequality". After reading this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions: Why do we face income inequality? How does inequality affect a nation? What are the problems of reducing inequality? Should the government reduce inequality? How can one make very high income? Why is there income inequality between men and women?...
The issue of disparity and inequalities between black and minority ethnic groups and the
majority white population in rates of mental ill health and equality of service in terms of
experience and outcomes has figured in government policy since Labour took office in 1997.
The death of an African-Caribbean patient named David Bennett in a secure psychiatric unit
whilst detained under the Mental Health Act (1983) and the subsequent inquiry report
published in 2003 found the NHS to be “institutionally racist”.
This is the second book of examples from the Theory of Probability. This topic is not my favourite,
however, thanks to my former colleague, Ole Jørsboe, I somehow managed to get an idea of what it is
all about. The way I have treated the topic will often diverge from the more professional treatment.
On the other hand, it will probably also be closer to the way of thinking which is more common among
many readers, because I also had to start from scratch.
Discriminatory policies and initiatives have
contributed to growing inequalities between the
rural and urban sector, and to the inability of the
former to meet the needs and interests of rural
women and men. In almost all developing
countries, conditions of rural poor people are far
worse than those of the urban poor in terms of
consumption levels and access to education,
health care, water, sanitation, housing, transport
Mortality rates among children below five are much
higher in rural areas. For example, in Bolivia,
mortality rates are 1.
The bottom line of the table grosses up the numbers
for industry totals, by assuming that 80% is covered by the
top 10 firms. For the margin lending we assume 75% is
covered by member of the NYSE.
The main point to note is that counterparty exposure
differs considerably between the prime brokers, with higher
risk-taking firms (to generate higher returns) showing high
exposures relative to tier 1 capital, and more conservative
firms showing much lower ratios. The total exposure of the
top 10 firms is about USD 2.9 trillion, and total Tier 1
capital is around...
The Global Findex data show sharp disparities in the use of financial services
between high-income and developing economies and across individual character-
istics. The share of adults in high-income economies with an account at a formal
financial institution is more than twice that in developing economies. And around
the world, men and more educated, wealthier, and older adults make greater use
of formal financial services.
Novel cross-country data on self-reported reasons for not having a formal ac-
count make it possible to identify barriers to financial inclusion.
This article criticizes the predominant use of fear appeals in social
marketing. Laboratory studies, which have been the basis for most of
the research on fear appeals and which generally suggest that high
fear works, have limitations that include forced exposure, short-term
measurement, and an overdependence on student samples. Although,
unfortunately, field research evaluations of fear appeals are few, they
usually reveal that fear has both weaker effects and unintended deleterious
effects in real-world social marketing campaigns.
A fruitful dialogue between the public health and health care sector on the one hand,
and other policy areas on the other hand, is likely to be facilitated if the economic
benefits of reducing health inequalities were be made clear. It is the purpose of this
report to explore the economic implications of health inequalities in the European
Union. It addresses four specific questions.
This book is partly based on lectures I gave at NUI Galway and Trinity College Dublin between 1998 and 2000. It is by no means a comprehensive guide to all the mathematics an engineer might encounter during the course of his or her degree. The aim is more to highlight and explain some areas commonly found difficult, such as calculus, and to ease the transition from school level to university level mathematics, where sometimes the subject matter is similar, but the emphasis is usually different.
In many countries, babies born to women in prison stay in prison with their mother, and very
young children may accompany their mothers into prison. Facilities vary widely between and
within countries. Some countries have mother and baby units, with special facilities to
support the mother and the child’s development. In others, babies live in the prisons without
the state officially noting or monitoring their presence and without any special provision
being made for them.
Perhaps the most important finding of this research is the shared view of social media as a tool for women’s empowerment.
The majority of respondents felt that social media had the potential to be an empowering and engaging tool for women,
whether in social, economic, legal, political or civic arenas. These perceptions contrast with the reality of gender inequalities
that persist in the Arab region when it comes to these domains. In that sense, social media can potentially be a “change
agent” towards women’s empowerment in Arab societies.
On the day after his nomination as director of the Institute, Miguéz abolished the Chair of Singing
“due to a lack of teachers,” despite the large number of teachers in Italian bel canto working there.
Qualified piano teachers who belonged to the same aesthetic were replaced or downgraded to lower
posts, such as that of accompanist.
Numerous misconceptions surround endogenous infections. For example, many women
believe, or are mistakenly told by medical practitioners, that their symptoms result from much
more serious sexually transmitted infections. This can occur if the presence of inflammation or
discharge caused by endogenous infections is confused with discharge produced by STIs such
as gonorrhea or chlamydia. Indeed, many studies show that even experienced clinicians cannot
reliably distinguish between vaginal discharge caused by sexually transmitted or endogenous
Chapter 21 - Poverty, inequality, and discrimination. In this chapter you will learn: What the difference is between relative and absolute measures of poverty? How to explain different methods of measuring income inequality? How income mobility differs from income equality?