Null hypothesis signiﬁcance testing (NHST) is one of the main research tools in
social and behavioral research. It requires the speciﬁcation of a null hypothesis,
an alternative hypothesis, and data in order to test the null hypothesis. The
main result of a NHST is a p-value . An example of a null hypothesis and
a corresponding alternative hypothesis for a one-way analysis of variance is:
Thus, sibship configuration may influence how much parents invest in each of their child’s education and thus contribute to educational inequality within the family. The mechanisms through which parents exhibit their preference for a specific child may be either allocation of family resources among siblings or a subtle form of economic transfers among the siblings. Most prior studies have focused on the direct parental effect of allocation of family resources, and few studies have examined the indirect parental effect of inter-sibling transfer of family resources.
This paper examines the political and socio-economic factors that contributes to and constrains upon democratisation throughout South Africa and the African continent. The emphasis of the research is on the policies and impact of government, business and civil society in relation to capacity to the reduction of prevailing inequality and poverty in communities. The paper also raises issues of community empowerment as a way to promote local, national and regional sustainable development in the African continent....