For the 57th Nestlé Pediatric Nutrition Workshop, which took place in May
2005 at Half Moon Bay, San Francisco, the topic ‘Primary Prevention by
Nutrition Intervention in Infancy and Childhood’ was chosen. Early nutrition
seems to be involved in the mechanism of control, especially taking into
account the role of protein and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs).
It seems that the new generation of infant formulas already takes
those findings into consideration.
We would like to thank the two chairmen, Prof. Hugh Sampson and Prof.
Nutrition is one of the most important factors that impact health in all
areas of the lifecycle. Pregnant women need adequate food and health care
to deliver a healthy baby who has a good birth weight and a fighting chance
for survival. In many regions of the world, the infant mortality rate is very
high, meaning that many infants will not live to see their first birthday.
Breastfeeding is the ideal method of feeding and nurturing infants, because
breast milk contains many immunologic agents that protect the infant against
bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
Because the field of nutrition is actively evolving and creating major new principles in the care of the
pediatric patient, we have embarked on the third edition of this textbook. The editors continue to support
the premise that a comprehensive text as a reference source in pediatric nutrition is essential for the proper care
of infants and children. As medical care in the twenty-first century is predicated on prevention of disease, the
discipline of pediatric nutrition becomes that much more important.
Note: This table presents recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) in bold type and adequate intakes (AIs) in ordinary type. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all individuals (97 to 98%) in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by...
For half a billion women in developing
regions worldwide, anemia is a life-long burden,
one which affects most of their infants
and young children as well. Controlling anemia
in these vulnerable groups could significantly
reduce maternal and infant morbidity.
It would also enhance intellectual and work
capacity, thereby improving family, community
and national socioeconomic development.
In May 2002, the General Assembly of
the United Nations reemphasized that control
of nutritional anemia should be one of the
global Development Goals to be achieved in
the early years of this new millennium.
Nutrition is one of those subjects which comes up every day in general practice—or should do—yet in most undergraduate medical
schools it is crowded out by the big clinical specialities and high technology procedures. It is for subjects like nutrition that the British
Medical Journal’s ABC series is extremely useful.
This book was started when Dr Stephen Lock, previous editor of the BMJ asked me to write a series of weekly articles for an
imagined general practitioner, in an unfashionable provincial town who had been taught almost no nutrition at medical school.
Nutritional counseling and management are becoming important in health care,
particularly in the management of a number of chronic conditions and diseases. The
publication of this book is timely, because it aims to help physicians and their staffs
identify conditions and diseases that can be treated effectively with nutritional
intervention, and provides specifics on appropriate counseling and management.
The first of the 13 chapters discusses nutritional support for children, with
emphasis on premature infants, cystic fibrosis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia....
Pediatric cardiology section enlightens us on cardiovascular changes in fetuses /
infants as well as some pediatric cardiovascular surgical procedures needing skill
under recent developments. Pediatric hemato-oncology section explains novel
developments of well-known diseases such as neuroblastoma and thalassemias. For
instance; whole genome searches and molecular basis for diagnosis of neuroblastoma
are discussed. However, this section also includes some common complications of
oncology e.g. fertility and fatigue seen in these patients.
Nutritional health section depicts the importance of nutrition beginning from newborn
period to late childhood. In addition to breastfeeding of infant, growth and
development of child is being mentioned. Also, the role of probiotics use in healthy
nutrition is discussed under recent literature, in the context of prevention of
autoimmune diseases. Probiotics use is a hot topic and draws lots of attention from
different medical disciplines.
Depressed mothers in developed countries have been observed to provide less quantity and
poorer quality of stimulation for their infants (100) and to be slower in responding and less
responsive to them (101, 102). Depressed mothers are also more likely to have negative views of
themselves as parents (103), seeing themselves as having less personal control over their child’s
development, and less able to positively influence their children1
In summary, maternal mental health is inextricably linked with both physical and psychological
development of children.
All three core courses are designed to prepare students for the LEAP outcome of life-long learning. As such the
courses should teach students how to frame questions, analyze underlying causes, brainstorm solutions, and
critically analyze the methods for implementation. An evidence-based public health or population health approach
can help students to achieve all of these objectives. An extended example of the population health approach, with
links to an array of Internet resources, is available at www.teachpublichealth.org under resources.
For some doctors in affluent countries the first question about
prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) nowadays is
whether to write a prescription for one of the statins
(simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, etc) which
inhibit an early step of cholesterol biosynthesis in the body (see
p 7). Tables are available to show whether the 5- or 10-year risk
justifies the cost of long term statin medication, but the
relation of diet and CHD is still of primary importance for the
majority of people. What we eat is bound up with the aetiology
. ^ S J ^ s I was walking between examination rooms recently, I
wished that I could introduce the family in exam room A to the
family in exam room B. The children in both rooms had foodrelated
"issues"—one was a picky eater and the other was what
I dub a "dessert monster." Both children had a couple of rather
desperate parents. I knew that if the two families could meet,
they would be greatly reassured to know they were not alone.
Infancy, child and mother care: Improved care during infancy includes attention to a
variety of home and community interventions aimed at preventing common childhood
infections and ensuring better health for the mother.
The selection of twelve variables for eliciting the composite index for ranking of 569 districts
seems to be arbitrary in the sense that some of the important dimensions of reproductive and
child health which have a direct bearing on infant and maternal mortality have been altogether
omitted from the list of available RCH indicators in the survey reports. The extent of utilization
of Antenatal care has often been emphasized as having a direct bearing on maternal and infant
health and mortality, especially the neonatal component of infant mortality.
Dissociative amnesia could be differentiated according to the degree and timeframe of
impairment (global versus selective, anterograde versus retrograde) of autobiographical-
episodic memory and the co-existence of deficits in autobiographical-semantic memory and
general semantic knowledge. The most frequent types of dissociative amnesias are
retrograde, a fact that is in fact captured by the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR (2000). The
latter distinguishes between localized amnesia, selective amnesia, generalized amnesia,
continuous amnesia and systematized amnesia. ...
Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy usually lead to intrauterine growth retardation,
which is one of the main causes of foetal and infant undernutrition in developing countries.
Every year, 30 million newborns, or 23% of 126 million births per year, are affected by
intrauterine growth retardation; by contrast, in developed countries the rate is only about 2%
(World Health Organization 2000a).
Acupuncture is growing in popularity world-wide. Since it started to be scientifically
studied in the 1970’s, acupuncture is conquering position as an efficient and safe
therapeutic method. The amount of cumulated scientific evidence is already enough to
guarantee a highly detached status for acupuncture among other complementary
therapies. In many countries, acupuncture is well integrated into the conventional
health system. This scenario would seem to be very favorable and the value of
acupuncture would thus seem well consolidated.
There was a need to bring
this information together in a single volume, as much of the key recent developments
have been dispersed throughout the biomedical literature, largely in specialized
journals. Since, as in the past, important developments in immunosuppressive
therapy in one branch of medicine (i.e. transplantation) are likely to benefit another
The fourth part deals with country experiences in the insurance sector specifically the
experiences of China and Africa based on two case studies undertaken specifically for the
meeting. It also focuses on the experiences of insurance providers from developing
countries such as Guatemala, India and South Africa. The experiences of Indian insurance
provider JB Boda in terms of its operations and the challenges the company faces as well
as that of Basil Reekie, chief executive officer, QED, and chairman, African Life
Committee, are very illuminating in this regard.