Infant nutrition

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  • For the 57th Nestlé Pediatric Nutrition Workshop, which took place in May 2005 at Half Moon Bay, San Francisco, the topic ‘Primary Prevention by Nutrition Intervention in Infancy and Childhood’ was chosen. Early nutrition seems to be involved in the mechanism of control, especially taking into account the role of protein and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). It seems that the new generation of infant formulas already takes those findings into consideration. We would like to thank the two chairmen, Prof. Hugh Sampson and Prof.

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  • Nutrition is one of the most important factors that impact health in all areas of the lifecycle. Pregnant women need adequate food and health care to deliver a healthy baby who has a good birth weight and a fighting chance for survival. In many regions of the world, the infant mortality rate is very high, meaning that many infants will not live to see their first birthday. Breastfeeding is the ideal method of feeding and nurturing infants, because breast milk contains many immunologic agents that protect the infant against bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

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  • Because the field of nutrition is actively evolving and creating major new principles in the care of the pediatric patient, we have embarked on the third edition of this textbook. The editors continue to support the premise that a comprehensive text as a reference source in pediatric nutrition is essential for the proper care of infants and children. As medical care in the twenty-first century is predicated on prevention of disease, the discipline of pediatric nutrition becomes that much more important.

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  • For half a billion women in developing regions worldwide, anemia is a life-long burden, one which affects most of their infants and young children as well. Controlling anemia in these vulnerable groups could significantly reduce maternal and infant morbidity. It would also enhance intellectual and work capacity, thereby improving family, community and national socioeconomic development. In May 2002, the General Assembly of the United Nations reemphasized that control of nutritional anemia should be one of the global Development Goals to be achieved in the early years of this new millennium.

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  • Nutrition is one of those subjects which comes up every day in general practice—or should do—yet in most undergraduate medical schools it is crowded out by the big clinical specialities and high technology procedures. It is for subjects like nutrition that the British Medical Journal’s ABC series is extremely useful. This book was started when Dr Stephen Lock, previous editor of the BMJ asked me to write a series of weekly articles for an imagined general practitioner, in an unfashionable provincial town who had been taught almost no nutrition at medical school.

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  • Note: This table presents recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) in bold type and adequate intakes (AIs) in ordinary type. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all individuals (97 to 98%) in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by...

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  • Nutritional counseling and management are becoming important in health care, particularly in the management of a number of chronic conditions and diseases. The publication of this book is timely, because it aims to help physicians and their staffs identify conditions and diseases that can be treated effectively with nutritional intervention, and provides specifics on appropriate counseling and management. The first of the 13 chapters discusses nutritional support for children, with emphasis on premature infants, cystic fibrosis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia....

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  • Pediatric cardiology section enlightens us on cardiovascular changes in fetuses / infants as well as some pediatric cardiovascular surgical procedures needing skill under recent developments. Pediatric hemato-oncology section explains novel developments of well-known diseases such as neuroblastoma and thalassemias. For instance; whole genome searches and molecular basis for diagnosis of neuroblastoma are discussed. However, this section also includes some common complications of oncology e.g. fertility and fatigue seen in these patients.

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  • Nutritional health section depicts the importance of nutrition beginning from newborn period to late childhood. In addition to breastfeeding of infant, growth and development of child is being mentioned. Also, the role of probiotics use in healthy nutrition is discussed under recent literature, in the context of prevention of autoimmune diseases. Probiotics use is a hot topic and draws lots of attention from different medical disciplines.

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  • Depressed mothers in developed countries have been observed to provide less quantity and poorer quality of stimulation for their infants (100) and to be slower in responding and less responsive to them (101, 102). Depressed mothers are also more likely to have negative views of themselves as parents (103), seeing themselves as having less personal control over their child’s development, and less able to positively influence their children1 . In summary, maternal mental health is inextricably linked with both physical and psychological development of children.

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  • All three core courses are designed to prepare students for the LEAP outcome of life-long learning. As such the courses should teach students how to frame questions, analyze underlying causes, brainstorm solutions, and critically analyze the methods for implementation. An evidence-based public health or population health approach can help students to achieve all of these objectives. An extended example of the population health approach, with links to an array of Internet resources, is available at www.teachpublichealth.org under resources.

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  • For some doctors in affluent countries the first question about prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) nowadays is whether to write a prescription for one of the statins (simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, etc) which inhibit an early step of cholesterol biosynthesis in the body (see p 7). Tables are available to show whether the 5- or 10-year risk justifies the cost of long term statin medication, but the relation of diet and CHD is still of primary importance for the majority of people. What we eat is bound up with the aetiology of CHD.

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  • . ^ S J ^ s I was walking between examination rooms recently, I wished that I could introduce the family in exam room A to the family in exam room B. The children in both rooms had foodrelated "issues"—one was a picky eater and the other was what I dub a "dessert monster." Both children had a couple of rather desperate parents. I knew that if the two families could meet, they would be greatly reassured to know they were not alone.

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  • Infancy, child and mother care: Improved care during infancy includes attention to a variety of home and community interventions aimed at preventing common childhood infections and ensuring better health for the mother.

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  • The selection of twelve variables for eliciting the composite index for ranking of 569 districts seems to be arbitrary in the sense that some of the important dimensions of reproductive and child health which have a direct bearing on infant and maternal mortality have been altogether omitted from the list of available RCH indicators in the survey reports. The extent of utilization of Antenatal care has often been emphasized as having a direct bearing on maternal and infant health and mortality, especially the neonatal component of infant mortality.

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  • Dissociative amnesia could be differentiated according to the degree and timeframe of impairment (global versus selective, anterograde versus retrograde) of autobiographical- episodic memory and the co-existence of deficits in autobiographical-semantic memory and general semantic knowledge. The most frequent types of dissociative amnesias are retrograde, a fact that is in fact captured by the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR (2000). The latter distinguishes between localized amnesia, selective amnesia, generalized amnesia, continuous amnesia and systematized amnesia. ...

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  • Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy usually lead to intrauterine growth retardation, which is one of the main causes of foetal and infant undernutrition in developing countries. Every year, 30 million newborns, or 23% of 126 million births per year, are affected by intrauterine growth retardation; by contrast, in developed countries the rate is only about 2% (World Health Organization 2000a).

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  • Acupuncture is growing in popularity world-wide. Since it started to be scientifically studied in the 1970’s, acupuncture is conquering position as an efficient and safe therapeutic method. The amount of cumulated scientific evidence is already enough to guarantee a highly detached status for acupuncture among other complementary therapies. In many countries, acupuncture is well integrated into the conventional health system. This scenario would seem to be very favorable and the value of acupuncture would thus seem well consolidated.

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  • There was a need to bring this information together in a single volume, as much of the key recent developments have been dispersed throughout the biomedical literature, largely in specialized journals. Since, as in the past, important developments in immunosuppressive therapy in one branch of medicine (i.e. transplantation) are likely to benefit another (e.g.

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  • It is a great pleasure for me to be the editor of the book Contemporary Pediatrics. Nowadays; there is lot of classical pediatric text books describing various well-known topics. In these kinds of text books, there have always been similar topics, which are written with the same styles. Nevertheless, in this book volume, beyond classical themes, a different approach was made to current pediatric issues and topics.

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