Xem 1-20 trên 403 kết quả Inference
  • EXTERNAL AUDITOR'S EVALUTIONS OF INTERNAL : AUDIT WORK - A CASCADED INFERENCE APPROACH The trends identified in Figures 1.1 and 1.2 are again clear. First, θ is well above zero when δ is small, indicating that the residential housing market mechanism rewards administrators of effective schools with the wealthiest students when parents primarily assess schools by their effectiveness. When δ is large, θ is close to zero for all J, as no district structure creates the desired rewards when parents are largely unconcerned with school effectiveness....

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  • Information theory and inference, often taught separately, are here united in one entertaining textbook. These topics lie at the heart of many exciting areas of contemporary science and engineering - communication, signal processing, data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, computational neuroscience, bioinformatics, and cryptography. This textbook introduces theory in tandem with applications. Information theory is taught alongside practical communication systems, such as arithmetic coding for data compression and...

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  • Cross-document coreference, the task of grouping all the mentions of each entity in a document collection, arises in information extraction and automated knowledge base construction. For large collections, it is clearly impractical to consider all possible groupings of mentions into distinct entities.

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  • Can we automatically compose a large set of Wiktionaries and translation dictionaries to yield a massive, multilingual dictionary whose coverage is substantially greater than that of any of its constituent dictionaries? The composition of multiple translation dictionaries leads to a transitive inference problem: if word A translates to word B which in turn translates to word C, what is the probability that C is a translation of A? The paper introduces a novel algorithm that solves this problem for 10,000,000 words in more than 1,000 languages. ...

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  • It is claimed that a variety of facts concerning ellipsis, event reference, and interclausal coherence can be explained by two features of the linguistic form in question: (1) whether the form leaves behind an empty constituent in the syntax, and (2) whether the form is anaphoric in the semantics. It is proposed that these features interact with one of two types of discourse inference, namely Common Topic inference and Coherent Situation inference.

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  • A major focus of current work in distributional models of semantics is to construct phrase representations compositionally from word representations. However, the syntactic contexts which are modelled are usually severely limited, a fact which is reflected in the lexical-level WSD-like evaluation methods used.

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  • This book provides a rigorous algebraic study of the most popular inference formalisms with a special focus on their wide application area, showing that all these tasks can be performed by a single generic inference algorithm. Written by the leading international authority on the topic, it includes an algebraic perspective (study of the valuation algebra framework)

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  • Weighted tree transducers have been proposed as useful formal models for representing syntactic natural language processing applications, but there has been little description of inference algorithms for these automata beyond formal foundations. We give a detailed description of algorithms for application of cascades of weighted tree transducers to weighted tree acceptors, connecting formal theory with actual practice.

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  • We introduce a novel Bayesian approach for deciphering complex substitution ciphers. Our method uses a decipherment model which combines information from letter n-gram language models as well as word dictionaries. Bayesian inference is performed on our model using an efficient sampling technique. We evaluate the quality of the Bayesian decipherment output on simple and homophonic letter substitution ciphers and show that unlike a previous approach, our method consistently produces almost 100% accurate decipherments. ...

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  • Event extraction is the task of detecting certain specified types of events that are mentioned in the source language data. The state-of-the-art research on the task is transductive inference (e.g. cross-event inference). In this paper, we propose a new method of event extraction by well using cross-entity inference. In contrast to previous inference methods, we regard entitytype consistency as key feature to predict event mentions. We adopt this inference method to improve the traditional sentence-level event extraction system. ...

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  • Introduction In cooperative man-machine interaction, it is taken as necessary that a system truthfully and informatively respond to a user's question. It is not, however, sufficient. In particular, if the system has reason to believe that its planned response nfight lead the user to draw an inference that it knows to be false, then it must block it by nmdifying or adding to its response. The problem is that a system neither can nor should explore all eonchtsions a user might possibly draw: its reasoning must be constrained in some systematic and well-motivated way.

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  • Existing models of plan inference (PI) in conversation have assumed that the agent whose plan is being inferred (the actor) and the agent drawing the inference (the observer) have identical beliefs about actions in the domain. I argue that this assumption often results in failure of both the PI process and the communicative process that PI is meant to support. In particular, it precludes the principled generation of appropriate responses to queries that arise from invalid plans. I describe a model of P1 that abandons this assumption. It rests on an analysis of plans as mental phenomena.

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  • In this paper, we explore ways of improving an inference rule collection and its application to the task of recognizing textual entailment. For this purpose, we start with an automatically acquired collection and we propose methods to refine it and obtain more rules using a hand-crafted lexical resource. Following this, we derive a dependency-based structure representation from texts, which aims to provide a proper base for the inference rule application.

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  • When I hear you give your reasons,” I remarked, “the thing always appears to me to be so ridiculously simple that I could easily do it myself, though at each successive instance of your reasoning I am baffled until you explain your process.” Dr. Watson to Sherlock Holmes A Scandal in Bohemia 0.1 Description This solutions manual contains solutions for all odd numbered problems plus a large number of solutions for even numbered problems. Of the 624 exercises in Statistical Inference, Second Edition, this manual gives solutions for 484 (78%) of them.

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  • This paper addresses the search problem in textual inference, where systems need to infer one piece of text from another. A prominent approach to this task is attempts to transform one text into the other through a sequence of inference-preserving transformations, a.k.a. a proof, while estimating the proof’s validity.

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  • The importance of inference rules to semantic applications has long been recognized and extensive work has been carried out to automatically acquire inference-rule resources. However, evaluating such resources has turned out to be a non-trivial task, slowing progress in the field. In this paper, we suggest a framework for evaluating inference-rule resources.

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  • We apply the hypothesis of “One Sense Per Discourse” (Yarowsky, 1995) to information extraction (IE), and extend the scope of “discourse” from one single document to a cluster of topically-related documents. We employ a similar approach to propagate consistent event arguments across sentences and documents. Combining global evidence from related documents with local decisions, we design a simple scheme to conduct cross-document inference for improving the ACE event extraction task 1 . ...

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  • This paper presents an efficient inference algorithm of conditional random fields (CRFs) for large-scale data. Our key idea is to decompose the output label state into an active set and an inactive set in which most unsupported transitions become a constant. Our method unifies two previous methods for efficient inference of CRFs, and also derives a simple but robust special case that performs faster than exact inference when the active sets are sufficiently small. We demonstrate that our method achieves dramatic speedup on six standard natural language processing problems. ...

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  • Drawing appropriate defeasible inferences has been proven to be one of the most pervasive puzzles of natural language processing and a recurrent problem in pragmatics. This paper provides a theoretical framework, called stratified logic, that can accommodate defeasible pragmatic inferences. The framework yields an algorithm that computes the conversational, conventional, scalar, clausal, and normal state implicatures; and the presuppositions that are associated with utterances. The algorithm applies equally to simple and complex utterances and sequences of utterances. ...

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  • Latent conditional models have become popular recently in both natural language processing and vision processing communities. However, establishing an effective and efficient inference method on latent conditional models remains a question. In this paper, we describe the latent-dynamic inference (LDI), which is able to produce the optimal label sequence on latent conditional models by using efficient search strategy and dynamic programming.

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