Infertility is defined as the failure to conceive after one year of attempting pregnancy. Primary infertility denotes those patients who have never conceived. Secondary infertility applies to patients who have conceived previously. Approximately 15% of couples experience infertility, which may result from subfertility or sterility (the innate inability to conceive) in either partner or both. The female is responsible in 40%–50% of cases. The male is responsible in 30% and is contributory in another 20%–30% of couples.
"Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and
patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances."
Practice guidelines are used by diverse segments of the medical community to define and
communicate standards of performance and care. To date, the American Medical Association has
catalogued nearly 2,000 clinical practice guidelines or equivalent documents.
An additional source
on practice Guidelines is the web site www.guideline.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) follows an extremely variable course with
survival ranging from months to decades. Recently, there has been major progress in
the identification of molecular and cellular markers that may predict the tendency for
disease progression in CLL patients. In particular, the mutational profile of Ig genes
and some cytogenetic abnormalities have been found to be important predictors of
prognosis in CLL. However, this progress has raised new questions about the biology,
prognosis and management of the disease, some of which are addressed here. ...
Newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients were tested for presence of HIV infection after informed consent was obtained. Subjects with or without HIV infection who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled, after obtaining written consent, between September 2000 and July 2006 when the required target for enrollment in each arm of the study was attained. These patients had never been treated for TB or had taken anti-tuberculosis drugs for less than one month.
One ongoing issue in translational informatics is patient privacy and the security of
data. An approach that has been pursued using semantic technologies is to encode
data access rules and then check all data accesses against these policies . For exam-
ple,apolicycangiveahospitalbillingspecialist access to data about procedures per-
formed at the hospital for the purpose of insurance billing. Then, when procedure data
is requested, the requester would need to show that they were a billing specialist and
provide the purpose for which they want to access the data.
Klemola and Norros (1997, 2001) observed and interviewed anesthetists (n = 16, 8
respectively) to explore the role of the patient monitor in their operating room practice and
to understand how they thought about their anesthetized patients and responded to infor-
mation they received while caring for them. Their ﬁndings suggested two distinct
approaches to practice, or ‘‘habits of action’’: the ‘‘interpretive orientation’’ guided by a
belief in an unpredictable world, and the ‘‘reactive orientation,’’ guided by a belief in a
The probiotic bacteria must be viable to affect the
health, but the non-viable bacteria could also affect the immunological status of the
host. It is believed that the arrival of probiotic bacteria with food to different parts of
intestine can increase probiotic bacteria adherence and the rate of colonization. Food
products may contain many forms of probiotic bacteria, including culture concentrate
that is added to a food (dried or deep-freeze form), the fermented or non-fermented
food products, and dietary supplements in the form of drug products-powder,
capsules or tablet.
Information on long-term health consequences of unsafe abortion is
scarce. The WHO estimates that about 20–30% of unsafe abortions
result in reproductive tract infections and that about 20–40% of these
result in upper-genital-tract infection and infertility. An estimated 2% of
women of reproductive age are infertile as a result of unsafe abortion,
and 5% have chronic infections.
Unsafe abortion could also increase
the long-term risk of ectopic pregnancy, premature delivery, and
spontaneous abortion in subsequent pregnancies.
In my presidential address, I summarized our past and present status,
and focused on a proposal for our future. You may read the full
text, entitled “Strategies and Goals: The Future of the International
Gynecologic Cancer Society” in the December 2010 issue of our
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer. At the IGCS website,
you may view a webcast of my address as well as those of many
of the presenters from our 13th Biennial Meeting.
Sedation is the important factor in comfort of brain trauma patients. Insuffient sedation
causes hypertension, tachycardia, hypoxia, hypercapnia and uncomfortable with ventilator.
On the other hand excess sedation causes hypotansion, bradycardia, coma, respiratory
depresion, ileus, renal insufficiency, veinous stasis and immunosupression.
For the patients in the critical care unit firstly nonpharmacological method should be
experinced for sedation. The patients should be frequently oriented.
Calling the family members, the relexing exercises, musical therapy, masaj and sitting
exercises are important in control of anxiety and ajitation of patients.
Safe and effective management of the pain and anxiety needs a delicate balance for
analgesia and sedation protocols while managing delirium status.
The weaning of patients from mechanical ventilation is often hampered by the sedation that
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) is the specialty
society for physicians that focus on infertility. The organization has a Practice
Committee that issues regular reports, including guidelines on minimal
standards for providing ART, informed consent, and on the number of
embryos to be transferred in IVF procedures. The guidelines are distributed
to all members of ASRM, are published in the Society's journal, Fertility and
Sterility, and are available to the public on ASRM's website (www.asrm.org).
Current practice guidelines for ventilatory management advocate protective lung strategies
to prevent volutrauma, barotrauma, atelectrauma and biotrauma (3-5). The principles are to
use low tidal volumes (Vt) (5-6 ml/kg ideal body weight), maintenance of low mean airway
pressures ≤ 30 cmH2O, judicious use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with Δ
pressure ≤ 18 cmH2O, higher respiratory rates and permissive hypercapnia.
It is difficult to overstress the importance of a good history and thorough
clinical examination for every patient. On this the diagnosis is made and
the treatment plan based. A full, clearly written record of the original consultation
is essential to assess progress following treatment. Particularly
is this true if a colleague should be called to see the patient in the practitioner's
tioner's absenceT. he medicolegali mportanceo f accurater ecords cannot be
No one knows more about a broad range of prescription drugs and other
medications than your pharmacist. Pharmacists study all the aspects of
prescription drug therapy, with an emphasis on safe patient care. The
Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree requires at least two years of col-
lege followed by four years of professional pharmacy study. To keep their
licenses, pharmacists must take several new courses every year to every
two years, depending on the state they are licensed in. Some pharma-
cists take extra training to specialize in such areas as geriatric pharmacy. ...
Through the licensure of physicians in each country, we
are permitted to treat female cancer patients. However, the
treatment modalities contain medication of various anti-cancer
drugs that can be associated with potentially fatal toxicity if
they are not used correctly. In addition, surgery can also be
associated with risks during our efforts to repair normal tissues
or remove tumors. Such unfortunate events can be fatal.
Overweight and obesity in the United States among adults
and children has increased significantly over the last two
decades. Those following typical American eating and
activity patterns are likely to be consuming diets in excess
of their energy requirements. However, caloric intake is
only one side of the energy balance equation. Caloric
expenditure needs to be in balance with caloric intake to
maintain body weight and must exceed caloric intake to
achieve weight loss (see tables 3 and 4).
This book contains four parts with 16 chapters. Firstly, an optimal stimulation scheme
for ovaries, particularly natural and minimal stimulation of ovaries, has been
discussed in the first part. Then, one paper analyzed that how many oocytes per
retrieval will be the best for human IVF practice. If one stimulation scheme produces
too many eggs, it often results in hyperstimulation syndrome.
The Affordable Care Act increases insurance company accountability by supporting States’
review of premium increases, setting standards for the amount of premiums spent on benefits
versus overhead (i.e., medical loss ratios), and posting insurance price information for
transparency. A Small Business Health Care Tax Credit, reinsurance for early retirees, and
premium assistance for uninsured people with pre-existing conditions have already provided
targeted relief for millions of insured and uninsured Americans, and these changes are making a
Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system that impairs one of the
body's most basic functions: the conception of children. In the United States,
infertility affects about 7.3 million women and their partners, or about 12%
of the reproductive-aged population. For many of these couples, the answer
lies in conventional medical therapy, such as drug treatment or surgery to
repair reproductive organs. Since 1978, ART has provided another solution
for many would-be parents.