Xem 1-20 trên 22 kết quả Inflation control
  • In this chapter students will be able to: Define the basic vocabulary of macroeconomics, describe how the economy is measured; describe how gross domestic product, our national measure of output, is calculated; calculate inflation using a price index; describe real gross domestic product as the inflation-adjusted value of economic activity and judge its use as the measure of the economy’s health;...

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  • Based on past WPI inflation data, we see that every time the real rate turned positive, the regulator reduced the SB rate 1 , never to take corrective action (in terms of increasing the SB rate) even on subsequent high negative real rates. Chart 1 provides this picture in very clear terms. From 2003 to 2009 the real rates on SB accounts remained at historically low levels and persisted there for six years. Barring the transitory reversal in end 2009, this high negative real rate continues to pinch the small savers till date. One can clearly see that at least during April...

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  • Because of the small size of the new member states, the enlargement will affect the Euro Area’s growth and inflation rates only to a limited extent. Both rates will nevertheless rise slightly without affecting the dynamics. Whereas the higher growth rate may not have any impact on the functioning of the Euro Area, the higher trend inflation rate might affect monetary policy. Of course, the impact will in all likelihood remain small, however the definition of price stability may have to be considered and marginally adjusted.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Delta inflation: a bias in the design of randomized controlled trials in critical care medicine...

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  • Wallace attempts to analyse central bank interest rate control in a cashless, Arrow- Debreu economy. The model incorporates only the unit of account function of money and exhibits a version of the classical dichotomy in which arbitrary accounting prices are independent of the equilibrium real relative price vector. A model with these properties is incapable of providing a theory of the price level or inflation, nominal interest rate rules or justifying a role for the central bank. Nominal magnitudes are nominal in name only and Wallace’s analysis is without theoretical foundations.

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  • To increase local capabilities to enable Africans to manage their pro- grams and projects themselves, AGETIPs are responsible for the process of design, contracting, and implementation of projects whose final ben- eficiaries are generally the municipalities or the public. The process in- cludes codesigning subprojects with local municipalities and communi- ties; publicizing contracts; contracting, supervising, and commissioning works; and paying suppliers. While remaining responsible for overall project management, AGETIPs contract out most services.

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  • After completing this unit, you should be able to: Define the basic vocabulary of macroeconomics; describe how the economy is measured; describe how gross domestic product, our national measure of output, is calculated; calculate inflation using a price index;...

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  • In this chapter, students will be able to: Describe the role of the Federal Reserve of the United States, define macroeconomic stability as the Fed’s primary goal while noting that controlling inflation has typically been the way it measures its success, integrate an understanding of the tools of monetary policy with their application utilizing an aggregate supply-aggregate demand model, describe the recent history of monetary policy and the Federal Reserve’s role in the 2007-2009 recession.

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  • After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Understand why a college education is so expensive and why those costs have been rising faster than inflation; explain the role of textbooks in those rising costs; apply the principle of present value so as to see why borrowing money to pay for a college education is a wise, if potentially risky investment in future income potential; understand that the United States has a greater percentage of citizens with a college degree than other developed countries, though that advantage is rapidly evaporating.

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  • When you finish this chapter, you should: Define a cartel, model how a cartel can make their members large sums of money, show why cartels are not typically stable and describe the conditions necessary for creating cartel stability, evaluate whether OPEC qualifies as a cartel, summarize the history of inflation-adjusted oil and gasoline prices.

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  • A third consecutive year of 8%-plus growth was led by strong expansion of investment and consumption. The rapid growth has strained resources, as shown by a surge in imports, infrastructure bottlenecks, skilled-labor shortages, and inflation, which accelerated to over 19% year on year by March 2008. The authorities have tightened monetary policy and allowed some exchange rate flexibility to rein in price rises, and are initiating fiscal measures. These steps, plus weaker external demand, should pull back growth this year. In 2009, inflation is expected to moderate and GDP growth pick up.

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  • To understand economics is to understand the practical case for freedom. The Concise Guide To Economics is a handy, quick reference guide for those already familiar with basic economics, and a brief, compelling primer for everyone else. Jim Cox introduces topics ranging from entrepreneurship, money, and inflation to the consequences of price controls (which are bad) to price gouging

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  • These relationships are shown in three figures. Figure 2 shows that it is operating costs, rather than capital costs or loan loss provisions, that that drive the differences in total costs between different kinds of microfinance institutions. Figure 3 shows that the institutions that make the smallest loans on average are also the institutions that face the highest costs per unit lent (a result that holds up in regressions after controlling for institutions’ age, inflation, country- level governance, GDP growth, region, and lending method).

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  • CBRE MARKET UPDATE Da Nang Q1/2012 Presented by: THAO LE Da Nang Research Opening Remarks from: TIEN CAO Da Nang Research ADAM BURY Senior Manager CB Richard Ellis (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. Friday, April 20th, 2012 .OPENING WORDS Da Nang 2012 – Continued Signs of Growth Hyatt Regency Da Nang Da Nang International Airport The Summit All Pictures – Source: CBRE Vietnam. Date 19th April, 2012 Harmony Tower MARKET INSIGHTS FROM CBRE’s DA NANG QUARTERLY UPDATES | APRIL 2012 2 CBRE RESEARCH & CONSULTING .

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  • Under the SRA and cuts specified in the 2008 farm bill, the reimbursement rate for A&O expenses averaged 18% of total premiums in 2009. 16 This means that for every $100 in premiums collected, the companies receive a reimbursement of $18 from the federal government. The reimbursement rate varies by insurance product, depending on whether it is for a yield-based or a revenue insurance product. The SRA places a maximum for A&O reimbursements at $1.3 billion per year (adjusted annually for inflation) and a minimum at $1.1 billion.

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  • The potential impact of debt on inflation depends on the response of monetary policy. High government debt could well constrain the ability of the central banks to set the policy rate to control inflation. This is the “fiscal dominance” view. Heavily debted governments force the central bank to accept inflation in order to reduce the real value of their debt. Historically, inflation has helped governments to reduce their public debt burdens.

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  • Most of the attention in the literature has been focused on the initial decentralization. Tsui and Wang (2004) call fiscal decentralization a “handmaiden” to China’s growth. Chen (2004) argues that regional and local governments have better information, and so more control over expenditures, leading to improved efficiency in government spending, and thus led to more growth.

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  • The share of income going to the wealthiest one percent of households more than doubled between 1979 and 2007, from 10 to 23.5 percent. The concentration is even greater when wealth and assets are included. In 2007, the top five percent of households controlled 37 percent of all income, but 60 percent of all net worth. Even after accounting for taxes and transfers, the incomes of the top one percent (adjusted for inflation) grew 275 percent between 1979 and 2007, while those of the middle class grew less than 40 percent. Partly a result of the very large tax cuts...

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  • The central bank started out as the government’s bank, originally created by rulers to finance wars. However, the early examples are really the exceptions, as central banking is largely a 20th century phenomenon. The central bank creates money and thereby controls the availability of money and credit in a country’s economy. In today’s world, central banks use monetary policy to stabilize economic growth and inflation.

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  • Clearly, a lot of those crisis responses would be unpalatable and some are not likely unless things get much worse. Many of them, of course, also have limits on their effectiveness. For example, while the Fed can control short-term policy interest rates, they don’t control risk premiums or interest rates on long-term securities. With high-commodity prices, nontrivial inflation risk, and turbulence in financial markets, long-term interest rates, including mortgage rates, have come down much less than short-term rates.

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