The source of project ideas may come from a variety
of sources, most importantly from prospective
implementing partners (either partner governments,
non-state actors or multi-lateral or regional
development agencies). Local ownership of, and
commitment to, potential projects is a key quality
Furthermore, project ideas should be drawn from the
priorities and targets identified in the relevant
Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative
A third criterion for effective research on skills transfer is study over time. To be
certain that students are transferring skills from their first language rather than using
skills learned in their second language, researchers must study subjects who have
received reading instruction in their first language prior to receiving it in their second
language, and who have received sufficient first-language instruction to have developed a
base of first-language skills that can be transferred.
Given a particular representation of f described in Section 2.1,wemust then choose the amount
of smoothness to allow for f . We examine model selection approaches that have already been
used extensively by investigators in the area of time series modelling of air pollution and health
data. A general strategy is to use a data-driven method and to select the number of degrees of
freedom(df) which optimizes a particular criterion. For example, one approach is to choose the
df which leads to optimal prediction of the mortality outcome series (e.g.
Contracting authorities will have to indicate in the contract notice and tender documents how
many additional points will be awarded for each award criterion. Environmental award criteria
should, altogether, account for at least 10 to 15 % of the total points available. Where the award
criterion is formulated in terms of “better performance as compared to the minimum requirements
included in the technical specifications”, points will be awarded in proportion to the improved
In this chapter, you learned to: Define the terms state of nature, event, decision alternatives, payoff, and utility; organize information in a payoff table or a decision tree; compute opportunity loss and utility function; find an optimal decision alternative based on a given decision criterion; assess the expected value of additional information.
Receiver Structure for PAM Signals
In this chapter we first discuss the main building blocks of a digital receiver (Section 4.1). The discussion is intended as an introduction to get a qualitative understanding of the design issues involved. In Section 4.2 we are concerned with the question under what conditions the samples of the received signal contain the entire information on the continuous-time signal. The samples obtained under such conditions provide so-called sufficient statistics for the digital receiver to be discussed in Section 4.3.
Using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method for multi-index evaluation has special
advantages, while the use of geographic information systems (GIS) is suitable for spatial
analysis. Combining AHP with GIS provides an effective approach for studies of mineral
potential mapping evaluation. Selection of potential areas for exploration is a complex
process in which many diverse criteria are to be considered.
Introduction To Equalizers
In most digital data transmission systems the dispersive linear channel encountered exhibits amplitude and phase distortion. As a result, the received signal is contaminatedby Intersymbo1 Interference (ISI). In a system, which transmits a sequenceof pulse-shaped information symbols, the time domain full response signalling pulses are smeared hostile dispersive by the channel, resulting in intersymbol interference. At the receiver, the linearly distorted signal has to be equalized in order torecover the information.
For bidirectional associate memory neural networks with time-varying delays, the problems of determining the exponential stability and estimating the exponential convergence rate are investigated by employing the Lyapunov functional method and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. A novel criterion for the stability, which give information on the delay-dependent property, is derived.
Nevertheless for both leisure and business markets, perhaps the most important criterion for selecting
to visit or not to visit a destination is its image. Image is the set of expectations and perceptions a
prospective traveler has of a destination. Past experience of the destination or the companies involved
(i.e. airlines, hotels, tour operators); descriptions by friends and relatives; general information; and
marketing campaigns develop these expectations and perception which may be true or imaginary
representations. (Baloglu and Brinberg, 1997; Chon,1991 and 1992; Chacko, 1997).
This paper describes the use of an on-line system to do word-sense ambiguity resolution and content analysis of English paragraphs, using a system of semantic analysis programmed in Q32 LISP 1.5. The system of semantic analysis comprises dictionary codings for the text words, coded forms of permitted message, and rules producing message forms in combination on the basis of a criterion of semantic closeness. All these can be expressed as a single system of rules of phrase-structure form.
Ordering information is a difﬁcult but important task for applications generating natural-language text. We present a bottom-up approach to arranging sentences extracted for multi-document summarization. To capture the association and order of two textual segments (eg, sentences), we deﬁne four criteria, chronology, topical-closeness, precedence, and succession. These criteria are integrated into a criterion by a supervised learning approach.
Currency of publication is a basic criterion in the evaluation process. In general, books selected for both Science
and Social Sciences & Humanities Editions must bear a copyright from the current year or previous five (5) years.
However, books outside this range, especially in Social Sciences and Arts & Humanities subjects, are often
considered for coverage with the understanding that older books in these areas are often of relatively greater value.
Competencies should be reviewed regularly and redefined to reflect the changing needs of
public health practice. Expected documentation for Criterion 2.6 includes “a description of
the manner in which the SPH/PHP periodically assesses the changing needs of public health
practice and uses this information to establish the competencies for its educational
programs.” A site visit team will expect to see evidence that this has occurred on an ongoing