Xem 1-18 trên 18 kết quả Information lag
  • Telecommunications refers to long-distance communication (the Greek tele means "far off"). At present, such communication is carried out with the aid of electronic equipment such as the Radio, Telegraph, Telephone, and Television. In earlier times, however, smoke signals, drums, light beacons, and various forms of semaphore were used for the same purpose. The information that is transmitted can be in the form of voice, symbols, pictures, or data, or a combination of these.

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  • However, the handbook is also intended for all teacher aides who do not speak the language of the students they are working with, including those teacher aides who speak only English. All teacher aides can use the information in the handbook in different ways, with the support of a coordinating teacher in their school (e.g. SENCO, Syndicate leader, ESOL teacher, Literacy leader, Learning support teacher).

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  • This section closes with a review of the evidence for managed port- folio performance based on the traditional measures. This discussion touches on the issues of survivorship bias and persistence in perfor- mance, among other topics. Chapter 3 discusses Conditional Performance Evaluation. Here, the idea is to measure performance accounting for the fact that the expected returns and risks for investing may vary over time depend- ing on the state of the economy. An example motivates the approach.

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  • To estimate equation (5) we have to take into account the potential endogeneity of financial performance and board appointment decisions. Furthermore, including the lagged dependent variable as an independent variable makes the fixed effects estimator not only biased, but also inconsistent. To overcome this problem an instrumental variables (IV) estimator could be used. However, appropriate governance instruments are not easy to find.

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  • Obviously, in this case we cannot fully eliminate the identification and causality problem because firms’ profits/losses may affect their demand for credit as well. In order to circumvent this problem (at least partly) we use in addition an interaction variable between the profitability dummy and the lagged value of the access to credit variable. The rationale is to test whether long-term enterprise-bank relations are associated with the firm’s viability.

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  • Mounting evidence suggests that antecedents of adult mental disorders can be detected in children and adolescents. The development of policies and programmes for child and adolescent mental health have lagged those for adult mental disorders. The reasons for the lag are many, including widespread lack of knowledge about child development and childhood mental disorders, relatively weak advocacy, lack of training and in many parts of the world, absent fi nancial and professional resources for programme development and implementation.

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  • China’s rural financial system has changed dramatically over the last twenty five years, but rural financial reforms were lagging behind changes in the real economy and required further economic transition. As in other countries moving towards a market economy, the reform of banking systems and the creation of efficient financial markets in China continues to be among the most difficult reform issues. Poorly functioning official financial markets push rural population to rely on informal institutions.

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  • Bioinformatics is an emerging and rapidly growing area of science. Not sur- prisingly, there is tremendous lag time between the state of knowledge and the publication of manuals for those who need to fathom the basic knowledge and apply it in problem solving. Mr. Rashidi and Dr. Buehler have found a way to address these needs. Their book provides excellent, timely, and easy- to-understand information and advice for those without a great...

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  • Electronic Medical Records Our growing reliance on computers and the strength of information technology are playing an increasingly important role in medicine. Laboratory data are accessed almost universally through computers. Many medical centers now have electronic medical records, computerized order entry, and bar-coded tracking of medications. Some of these systems are interactive and provide reminders or warn of potential medical errors. In many ways, the health care system has lagged behind other industries in the adoption of information technology.

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  • The presence of the lagged dependent variable Ci(-1) has a dual interpretation. On the one hand, it reflects relationship banking in the vein of the literature discussed in section 2.1. Long-term enterprise-bank relations help to reduce information asymmetries; banks would be more willing to lend again if they have already done so (we consider the banking sector as a whole as the lending party). On the other hand, a positive association can be interpreted as evidence of soft budget constraints on the part of the banks in the sense of Berglof and Roland (1998).

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  • Although FHLBanks can use published securities ratings to help make investment decisions, they should also consider other sources of financial information. Exclusive reliance on ratings can be an unsafe and unsound banking practice because credit ratings may lag actual changes in credit quality. There have been a number of instances where companies maintained investment grade ratings until just before they defaulted. To manage investment risks prudently, FHLBanks should supplement external ratings with internal credit analysis.

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  • Strengthening business relationships: the ability to enhance business-to- business communications has a huge potential. In the past companies were using (EDI electronic data interchange to streamline business processes and enhance communications. Through EDI suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and retailers were able to share information and enhance the flow of information and goods through the supply chain.

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  • The pig faces significant biological and environmental challenges after weaning. A great deal of information is available on behavior, environment, health, and nutrition of the newly weaned pig; however, newly weaned pigs still suffer a growth lag. The pig’s small intestinal structure and function is altered during the days that follow weaning. As a consequence, the digestive and absorptive capacity of weanling pigs is decreased during this period and this may be partially responsible for the post weaning growth lag....

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  • A broad literature on theoretical and empirical nance concludes that major price adjust- ment of liquid assets happens at least within one day. This is formalised in the random walk hypothesis, which implies returns uncorrelated with lagged variables. Whether or not this hypothesis is exactly ful lled, in daily data most commonalities in terms of cross- correlations appear to be contemporaneous.

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  • It is widely believed that broad adoption of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR-S) will lead to significant healthcare savings, reduce medical errors, and improve health, effectively transforming the U.S. healthcare system. Yet, adoption of EMR-S has been slow and appears to lag the effective application of information technology (IT)

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  • The use of the Internet (and other information technology) among the general population has resulted in a rising level of comfort and familiarity with these technologies. Businesses such as retailers, banks, and investment companies have been shifting more of their operations online, seeking to meet customer demand while reducing costs. Many businesses offer customer services online (these electronic services are often called e-business), often 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

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  • These trends suggest that private and public organizations have to reinvent themselves through ‘continuous non-linear innovation’ in order to sustain themselves and achieve strategic competitive advantage. The extant literature highlights the great potential of ICT tools for operational efficiency, cost reduction, quality of services, convenience, innovation and learning in private and public sectors. However, scholarly investigations have focused primarily on the effects and outcomes of ICTs (Information & Communication Technology) for the private sector.

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  • Only a decade ago, information and communication technologies (ICT) were drivers of growth. ME was regarded as a high- to medium-tech industry and considered to be lagging behind. This has changed markedly in the era of globalization. In contrast to ICT, which since its early days has been strong in the exploitation of advantages from global production networks, ME has turned out to be a less mobile industry. The relocation of manufacturing production has been less pronounced and has contributed to a better track record in workplaces in developed countries.

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