Information thermodynamics

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  • Thermodynamics is one of the most exciting branches of physical chemistry which has greatly contributed to the modern science. Being concentrated on a wide range of applications of thermodynamics, this book gathers a series of contributions by the finest scientists in the world, gathered in an orderly manner. It can be used in post-graduate courses for students and as a reference book, as it is written in a language pleasing to the reader. It can also serve as a reference material for researchers to whom the thermodynamics is one of the area of interest....

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  • The sub-series Ternary Alloy Systems of the Landolt-Börnstein New Series provides reliable and comprehensive descriptions of the materials constitution, based on critical intellectual evaluations of all data available at the time and it critically weights the different findings, also with respect to their compatibility with today’s edge binary phase diagrams. Selected are ternary systems of importance to alloy development and systems which gained in the recent years otherwise scientific interest.

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  • The handbook includes information on thermodynamics and the properties of fluids; the three modes of heat transfer - conduction, convection, and radiation; and fluid flow, and the energy relationships in fluid systems. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility fluid systems.

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  • The objective of this manual is to improve the international exchange of scientific information. The recommendations made to achieve this end come under three general headings. The first is the use of quantity calculus for handling physical quantities, and the general rules for the symbolism of quantities and units, described in chapter 1. The second is the use of internationally agreed symbols for the most frequently used quantities, described in chapter 2.

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  • Ionic Liquids (ILs) are one of the most interesting and rapidly developing areas of modern physical chemistry, technologies and engineering. This book, consisting of 29 chapters gathered in 4 sections, reviews in detail and compiles information about some important physical-chemical properties of ILs and new practical approaches. This is the first book of a series of forthcoming publications on this field by this publisher.

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  • Crystallization is one of the most ancient and interdisciplinary topics of research known to mankind. Crystals can be organic or inorganic and may be produced from melts, liquid solutions, vapors or even in solid state. Notwithstanding its inherently high complexity, the crystallization process is part of our everyday lives, from ice making in our homes to the most state-of-the-art chemical and electronic industry.

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  • In this chapter we discuss relations between information theory and statistical mechanics. We show that the canonical and grand canonical distributions can be obtained from Shannon’s principle of maximum uncertainty [1, 2, 3]. Moreover, the time evolution of the entropy of an isolated system and the H theorem are discussed.

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  • Modern complex dynamical systems1 are highly interconnected and mutually interdependent, both physically and through a multitude of information and communication network constraints. The sheer size (i.e., dimensionality) and complexity of these large-scale dynamical systems often necessitates a hierarchical decentralized architecture for analyzing and controlling these systems. Specifically, in the analysis and control-system design of complex large-scale dynamical systems it is often desirable to treat the overall system as a collection of interconnected subsystems.

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  • The present text introduces the use of fluidised bed processing in the context of wet granulation and coating. The text also covers introductory information about the mechanical properties of dry granules. This is a scientific field rarely taught at universities or engineering schools around the world although it has enormous and ever increasing relevance to the chemical and biochemical industries. Often students are left with nothing but qualitative tendencies and hands-on experience as no textbook yet covers all relevant subjects treated in this text....

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  • This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A3 receptor. It covers a wide range of information, including data from studies of theoretical, molecular and cellular pharmacology, signal transduction, integrative physiology, new drug discoveries and clinical applications. It fills an important gap in the literature since no alternative source of such information is currently available.

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  • Heat transfer is a fundamental part of thermal engineering. It is the science of the rules governing the transfer of heat between systems of different temperatures. In thermodynamics, the heat transferred from one system to its surroundings is assumed as a given process parameter. This assumption does not give any information on how the heat is transferred and which rules determine the quantity of the transferred heat. Heat transfer describes the dependencies of the heat transfer rate from a corresponding temperature difference and other physical conditions....

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  • Practical experience related to boiler corrosion kinetics at different feedwater pH levels is included in Fig. 1.5. The kinetic information in Fig. 1.5 indicates that high oxygen contents are generally undesirable. It should also be noted from Figs. 1.5 and 1.6 that active corrosion is possible in acidified untreated boiler water, even in the absence of oxygen. Below the hydrogen evolution line, hydrogen evolution is thermodynamically favored as the cathodic half-cell reaction, as indicated.

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  • The book reports on an attempt to understand the unity of physics. This unity began to manifest itself in rather unexpected form in this century. The most important step in that direction was the development of quantum theory; the emphasis of this book is therefore on the endeavor to understand quantum theory. Here, understand refers not merely to practical application of the theory—in that sense it has been understood for a long time. It means being able to say what one does when applying the theory....

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  • Energy is defined as the capacity of a substance to do work. It is a property of the substance and it can be transferred by interaction of a system and its surroundings. The student would have encountered these interactions during the study of Thermodynamics. However, Thermodynamics deals with the end states of the processes and provides no information on the physical mechanisms that caused the process to take place. Heat Transfer is an example of such a process. A convenient definition of heat transfer is energy in transition due to temperature differences.

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  • Current Flow in an Electrochemical Cell: Thermodynamic arguments permit the feasibility of overall cell reactions to be predicted, but give no information on rates. To understand the latter it is necessary to consider the effects on various parts of the cell of forcing the cell voltage to assume a value different from that of the equilibrium potential Eeq (V) or electromotive force (emf). In the example of Figure 1, the cell contains hydrochloric acid as aqueous electrolyte and it divides into two compartments by a semipermeable membrane.

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  • Ikkai&Ooi [Ikkai,T.&Ooi,T. (1966)Biochemistry5, 1551± 1560] made a thorough study of the e€ect of pressure on G- and F-actins. However, all of the measurements in their study were made after the release of pressure. In the present experiment in situ observations were attempted by using eATP to obtain further detailed kinetic and thermodynamic information about the behaviour of actin under pressure.

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