Inhaled substance

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  • The development of a respiratory tract model which accurately reflects reality is a difficult and complicated effort. This stems largely from the variety of airway shapes, airflow patterns, and cell types having different radiosensitivities. Anatomic and physiologic alterations in smokers or those exposed to chemicals, among others, further complicate modeling. In spite of the inherent difficulties, the continuing pursuit of a model that mimics actual conditions has been considered to be important by those involved in radiation protection....

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  • Thus, ultrafine dusts of the same dimensions as nanoparticles mainly penetrate the body via inhalation and are deposited in the lungs. A portion of these dusts can be distributed directly to the brain via the olfactory nerves. The lungs do not necessarily succeed in totally eliminating these undesirable particles, which then cause pulmonary inflammation. This can lead to the development of lung diseases specific to the nature of the dusts that caused them.

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  • General Anesthetic Drugs sic, an injectable anesthetic, a short-acting muscle relaxant, and a low dose of a neuroleptic. In regional anesthesia (spinal anesthesia) with a local anesthetic (p. 204), nociception is eliminated, while consciousness is preserved. This procedure, therefore, does not fall under the definition of general anesthesia. According to their mode of application, general anesthetics in the restricted sense are divided into inhalational (gaseous, volatile) and injectable agents.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 30. Disorders of Smell, Taste, and Hearing Smell The sense of smell determines the flavor and palatability of food and drink and serves, along with the trigeminal system, as a monitor of inhaled chemicals, including dangerous substances such as natural gas, smoke, and air pollutants. Olfactory dysfunction affects ~1% of people under age 60 and more than half of the population beyond this age. Definitions Smell is the perception of odor by the nose. Taste is the perception of salty, sweet, sour, or bitter by the tongue.

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